Use three quarters of a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit. Place the fruit, pared and cored, in layers with the sugar in the preserving kettle. Let it stand a few minutes to extract some of the juice from the fruit; then place it on the fire and cook until it becomes a thick, consistent mass. Stir it frequently to break the fruit. When it has become tender, use a potato-masher to crush it. When it looks clear, put a little on a plate, and if it thickens, it is done. Put it into tumblers and cover. This does not require to be hermetically sealed. In making preserves it is well to reserve all the fruit which is not perfect and make it into jam.

Quince Marmalade

Pare, core, and cut into pieces the fruit. Put the skins and cores into a kettle; cover them with water, and boil thirty minutes, or until tender; strain off the water through a colander, and as much pulp as will pass without the skins. To this add the rest of the fruit and three quarters of a pound of sugar to each pound of fruit. Boil it until it becomes a jelly-like mass. Mash the fruit as much as possible. It may be colored red, if desired, with cochineal. Turn it into glasses, tin boxes, or wooden salt-boxes. It becomes solid, and is served cut into slices. The Russians cut it into inch squares, and serve it as a bonbon.

Orange Marmalade

Allow the juice and grated rind of one lemon to every five oranges. Weigh the fruit before cutting it, and allow three quarters of a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit. Remove the peel in quarters, and boil it in plenty of water until it is tender enough to pierce easily with a broom-straw; then drain off the water and let it cool. Remove the seeds and as much of the skin as possible from the pulp. Boil the pulp with the sugar until the orange is well cooked. When the peel is cool take one piece at a time in the palm of the hand, and with a tablespoon cut out all the white pithy part, leaving the thin yellow rind. Place a number of these pieces together, and with a sharp knife cut them into thin shreds. By cutting many together in this way it is done quickly. Add the shredded rinds to the cooked oranges and let them cook until of the right consistency. It should be very thick, but not solid like jelly. This is a very good marmalade, and resembles the Dundee brand.

Apple Marmalade

Make the same as directed for jams.

Brandt Peaches

Cook the fruit the same as directed for preserving peaches; but for this purpose the peaches are left whole, the skin left on or not, as desired. If the skins are retained they should be carefully brushed to remove all the down; use only fine fruit. When the jars are filled, add to each quart a half cupful of brandy, and seal; or, after filling the jars with fruit, boil down the syrup until it is very thick, and to each cupful of syrup add a cupful of brandy; pour it over the fruit and seal. California brandy serves very well for this purpose.