Canning does not differ from preserving, except in the amount of sugar used. A quarter of a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit is the rule, but none at all need be used, as the fruit will keep just as well without it if it is thoroughly sterilized by heat and immediately sealed. Fruits that require sugar when eaten fresh need sugar in like proportion when canned. The fruit may be boiled in a syrup of 14°, which is made of one pound of sugar to a quart of water, and bottled the same as when preserved, but an easier and better way is to cook it in the jars. Pack the fruit tightly in the jars and cover it with a syrup of 14°; red fruits need more sugar to preserve their color, and should have a syrup of 24°, which is one pint of water to a pound of sugar. Place the jars in a boiler of water, half covering them; raise them off the bottom of the boiler by standing them on muffin-rings or slats of wood. Do not let them touch. Cover the boiler, and let them cook until the fruit is tender; the fruit will fall a little, so the jars will have to be filled up again; use for this the contents of another jar, or plain boiling water; adjust and fasten the tops at once, and place them where the air will not strike them while cooling.
Another way is to pack the dry jars full of fruit, fasten down the tops at once, place them in a boiler of cold water nearly covering them, raise it to the boiling-point and cook for an hour, and leave them in the water until cold again. In this way they are cooked in their own juice, and are said to retain their flavor better than where water is used. Canned apples make a very good substitute for fresh ones for pies, compotes and apple-sauce.