Peel the pears; cut them in two lengthwise, splitting the stem, or they may be left whole if preferred. Place them carefully in jars; fill the jars with a syrup of 30° (see page 513); cover the jars without fastening the tops. Place the jars in a boiler of warm water, half covering them. Stand the jars on muffin-rings, slats of wood, or something to raise them off the bottom of the boiler, or they will break while cooking. Cover the boiler and cook the fruit until it is tender and looks clear. Remove the jars carefully, fill them completely full, using more hot syrup, or the contents of one of the cooked jars. Adjust the tops and set them to cool where the air will not strike them. (See canning.) Pears may be cooked the same as peaches, but they are such a very tender fruit, it is better to use the method given, as the shape is kept better in this way.
Preserve plums in the same way as directed for peaches or for pears. Remove the skin from them or not. If left on it is likely to crack open and come off if boiled too long. To prevent this, in a measure, prick the plums in several places with a fork before cooking.
Press the pulp out of each grape. Boil the pulps until tender, then pass them through a colander to remove the seeds. Mix the skins with the pulp and juice, add as many cupfuls of sugar as there are of grapes, and boil all together until well thickened.
Seal while hot the same as other preserves.
Green grapes are preserved by cutting each grape in halves, taking out the seeds, then adding an equal quantity of sugar, and boiling all together until of the right consistency.
Select firm, large berries and remove the hulls. To each pound of fruit (one basketful of berries will weigh about a pound) add three quarters of a pound of granulated sugar. Mix it with the berries, and let them stand ten to fifteen minutes, or long enough to moisten the sugar but not soften the berries. Put them in a granite or porcelain-lined saucepan and let them boil slowly five to ten minutes, or until the berries are softened; do not stir them, as that will break the berries, and do not boil long enough for them to lose their shape. Cook one basketful of berries only at a time. A larger quantity crushes by its own weight. A good method is to have two saucepans and two bowls, and leave the berries, after being hulled, in the baskets until ready to use; then put a basketful at a time in a bowl with sugar sprinkled through them; while one bowlful is being cooked, the bowl refilled, and the glasses filled, the other one is ready to use. In this way no time is lost, and the cooking is accomplished in as short a time as though all were put into a preserving kettle together. It is well to put strawberries into glasses. One basketful of berries will fill two half-pint tumblers. Cover the tops with paraffin as directed above, page 537.
Fill pint jars with as many berries as they will hold; pour over them a hot syrup of 32° (see page 513). After standing a few minutes they will shrivel, and more berries should be added. Cover and cook them in a boiler as directed for preserved pears and canning.
Strawberries require more sugar than other fruits to preserve their color, therefore they do not can well.
Strawberries, if carefully prepared by either of the foregoing receipts, will resemble the Wiesbaden preserves.
Raspberries are preserved the same as strawberries.
Pare and core the citron; cut it into strips and notch the edges; or cut it into fancy shapes. Allow a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit, and to six pounds of the fruit allow four lemons and a quarter of a pound of ginger root. Tie the ginger in a cloth, and boil it in a quart and a half of water until the flavor is extracted; then remove it, and add to the water the sugar and the juice of the lemons; stir until the sugar is dissolved and the syrup is clear; take off any scum; then add the citron, and cook until it is clear, but not soft enough to fall apart. Can and seal while hot.