4 pounds shin of beef

10 cups (2 1/2| qts.) water

3 cloves

2 bay leaves

1 teaspoon peppercorns

Any poultry or game bones

1 carrot

2 onions, browned

1 bunch herbs

2 stalks celery

Cut meat into small squares, break up bones and remove marrow; cover with water and bring gently to the boil; skim well, then add all the other ingredients and simmer four hours; pour through a fine sieve, and when cold remove fat. The bones, etc., may be boiled again for inexpensive soups.

To make an everyday stock, cut up some meat or meat trimmings and chop up bones; put them into a large saucepan and fill up with cold water, allowing four cups to each pound of meat and bones; add a little salt, and bring to boiling point slowly. Add a few stock vegetables, such as onion, turnip, carrot, celery and parsley, all of which must be thoroughly cleaned. Simmer for three or four hours, then strain into a basin, and be sure that every particle of grease is removed. Almost any kind of meat, cooked or uncooked, bones, and gravy from meat may be used for stock-making, so long as they are fresh and sweet.