The port where the body of St. James was landed was called Tria Flavia, now Padron.† In those days there reigned over the country a certain queen named "Lupa," and she and her people were plunged in wickedness and idolatry. Now, having come to shore, they laid the body of the Apostle upon a great stone, which became like wax, and, receiving the body, closed around it. This was a sign that the saint willed to remain there; but the wicked queen Lupa was displeased, and commanded that some wild bulls should be harnessed to a car, and that the body, with the self-formed tomb, should be placed on it, hoping that it would be dragged to destruction. But in this she was mistaken, for the wild bulls, when signed by the cross, became as docile as sheep, and they drew the body of St. James straight into the court of her palace. When queen Lupa beheld this miracle, she was confounded, and she and all her people became Christians, and she built a magnificent Church to receive the sacred remains, and died in the odour of sanctity. But then came the darkness and ruin, which, during the invasion of the Barbarians, overshadowed all Spain, and the body of the Apostle was lost, and no one knew where to find it, until the year 800. Florez‡ says, that a Galician peasant discovered, in the ninth century, the spot in which was deposited a marble sepulchre, containing the ashes of St. James, owing to the appearing of certain preternatural lights in a forest; but others say that the discovery was made by Theodorier, Bishop of Tria Flavia, about 814. A rude chapel, suitable to the poverty of the Christians, was immediately built by Alphonso, the Chaste, king of Leon, and in 876, his successor, Alphonso III., erected, on the spot, a temple more worthy of the majesty of the saint.* The shells of Galicia, or scallops, belonged exclusively to the Cora-postella pilgrim, and the Popes Alexander III., Gregory IX., and Clement V., in their Bulls, granted a faculty to the Archbishops of Compostella, to excommunicate all who sold these shells to pilgrims anywhere except in the city of Compostella.†
* 'Pilgrims of the Middle Ages,' by the Rev. E. L. Cutts, M.A. 'Art Journal,' 1861.
† 'Sacred and Legendary Art,' 2 vols. by Mrs. Jameson.
‡ 'Historia Compostellana,' lib. i. cap. ii. apud, 'Espana Sagrada,' tome xx.
When the marriage of Edward I., king of England, took place with Leonora, sister of Alonzo of Castile, a protection to English pilgrims was stipulated for, but they came in such numbers that they alarmed the French, who threw difficulties in their way. In the fifteenth century, Rymer mentions that 916 licences were granted to make the pilgrimage to Santiago in 1428; in 1434 as many as 2460 were granted.‡ The name of "Jacobitae," or "Jacobipetse," was given to Compostella pilgrims, and there was an hotel in Paris on purpose for receiving them if they were bound to St. James's shrine; but the revenues failing, it was purchased by the Dominicans.* Besides its badge, each pilgrimage had also its gathering cry, which the pilgrims shouted out, as at grey of morn they slowly crept through the town or hamlet where they had passed the night, and Pope Calixtus says,† that the Santiago pilgrims were accustomed, before dawn, at the top of each town, to cry with a loud voice, " Deus adjuva! Sancte Jacobi!" "God help ! Santiago V3
* 'Medii vi Aekalendariuin,' etc, by R. J. Hampson, vol. ii. bk. ii. p. 329.
† 'On Pilgrims' Signs and Tokens,' by C. Roach Smith. See note, 'Archaeological Journal,' vol. i. p. 202.
‡ See note, ' Pilgrims of the Middle Ages,' vol. vii. p. 308, 'Art Journal,' 1861, by the Rev. E. L. Cutts.
It is stated that pilgrims used to present their scrips and bourdons to their parish churches, and Coryatt saw cockle, mussel-shells, beads, and other religious relics, hung up over the door of a little chapel in a nunnery. These were deposits and offerings made by pilgrims to Compostella, when they returned and gave thanks.‡
The Rev. E. L. Cutts states that shells have not unfrequently been found in stone coffins, and are supposed to be relics of the pilgrimage once taken by the deceased to Compostella; and that when the grave of Bishop Mayhew, who died in 1516, was opened some years ago, in Hereford Cathedral, a common rough hazel-wand, between four and five feet long, and as thick as a man's finger, was found lying by his side, and with it a few mussel and oyster shells.
St. James of Compostella is said to have performed many miracles, and to have appeared no less than fifteen times to the Spanish kings and princes, when some great advantage always ensued; for instance, one day he put himself at the head of the troops of a king of Spain, Ramira, king of Leon, and leading them against the Moors, mounted on a white horse, the housings charged with escallops, defeated those infidels. St. James supported his people, by taking part in their battles, down to a very late period, as Caro de Torres mentions two engagements in which he cheered on the squadrons of "Cortes" and "Pizarro" "with his sword flashing lightning in the eyes of the Indians".* The great Spanish military order of "Santiago de la Espada" is supposed to have been instituted in memory of the celebrated battle of Clavijo, the peculiar badge of which order is a red cross, like a sword, charged with a white scallop shell, and the motto " Rubet ensis sanguine Arabum".† To this day you are told in Spain, that the scallops found at Clavijo, were dropped there by St. James, or Santiago, when he assisted the Spaniards to kill 60,000 Moors in the year 997, and they are considered visible proofs for those who doubt the miracles of this saint.
* Fosbroke's 'British Monachism,' p. 469.
† 'Sermones Bib. Pat.' ed. Bignis xv. 330; 'Pilgrims of the Middle Ages' (note).
‡ Fosbroke's 'British Monachism'.