SOUPS are wholesome and palatable and should form part of even the informal home dinner whenever possible. They are also excellent luncheon dishes

It is a good plan to have some sort of vegetable or meat stock always at hand, as this renders the making of soup both easy and economical. With milk at hand, cream soups are likewise easily made.

Meat Stock

To make good soup some kind of meat stock is almost essential. Instruct the butcher to deliver all bones and trimmings removed from roasts; and save all meats and gravies left over from previous meals. By so doing soup may be at once economical and good.

To every pound of meat and bone use one quart of cold water. Cut the meat into pieces and ask the butcher to crush the large bones, so that the gelatine and fat may be fully extracted. Put all in a covered kettle on the back of the stove. When the water becomes red bring the kettle forward and let it heat slowly. Keep the water below the boiling point for three or four hours. If more water is needed, add boiling water. It is not necessary to remove the scum that rises.

Stock should be prepared at least one day before it is to be used, so that the fat on the top may harden and be removed. Do not remove the fat until it is necessary, however, as it aids in keeping the stock sweet.

Vegetable Stock

1 carrot 1 onion

1 stalk celery

2 turnips

2 tomatoes

1 tablespoon sugar

4 tablespoons olive oil

2 quarts cold water 2 bay leaves

Salt and pepper

Chop the carrot, onion, celery, turnips and tomatoes very fine. Put the sugar in a kettle over the fire, and when it is brown add the olive oil and the vegetables. Add the water and season to taste. Let it simmer for one or two hours; strain and stand aside to cool.

Cream Stock

1 pint milk 1 tablespoon butter

1 tablespoon flour teaspoon salt

Red or black pepper

Melt the butter over the fire and add the flour, being careful not to let it brown. Add the milk gradually, stirring constantly to prevent lumps; then add the seasoning.

This cream sauce is used instead of stock as the foundation for many soups.

Consomme

2 pounds lean beaf

1 small knuckle veal

2 tablespoons butter 1 small onion

1 stalk celery 1 small carrot

1 bay leaf

2 quarts cold water

The under part of the round of beef is the best for this soup, though any lean portions will do. Cut the beef and veal into small pieces and brown them in the butter over a hot fire. Add the cold water, onion, celery, carrot and bay leaf; simmer slowly for five or six hours in a covered kettle. Take from the fire; cool; remove the fat; strain; reheat and serve.

Beef Bouillon

6 pounds beef and bone 2 quarts water

Pepper and salt

Cut and break the beef and bone, and put it in the water, letting it simmer for five or six hours. Then cool and strain through a sieve, removing all fatty matter. Reheat, seasoning to taste with pepper and salt.