This section is from the book "Practical Cooking And Serving", by Janet McKenzie Hill. Also available from Amazon: Practical Cooking and Serving: A Complete Manual of How to Select, Prepare, and Serve Food .
Average composition of cocoa and chocolate as purchased (atwater)
Water Per Cent.
Protein Per Cent.
Fat Per Cent.
Carbohydrates Per Cent.
Ash Per Cent.
Food Value Per lb. Calories
In dealing with tea and coffee we are considering articles that in themselves, as we use them, have absolutely no food value, articles that are prized by us simply on account of their stimulating qualities, but in all preparations made from cocoa-beans, or seeds, the beans themselves, in a prepared state, are consumed with the beverage, and analysis shows that the liquid is not only a beverage, but also a food of high nutritive value. It is on this account that a cup of cocoa or chocolate is a substantial addition to a light meal, as is the breakfast or luncheon quite often.
Cocoa is classed with tea and coffee because of its alkaloid principle, bromine, which, though milder and less stimulating, corresponds to the caffeine of coffee and the theine of tea. Cocoa-beans, like those of the coffee-shrub, are roasted before being ground or broken, and the process, as in roasting coffee, changes the starch in the seeds to dextrine.
In the process of transforming the cocoa-beans into the cocoa of commerce, other changes are also made: the woody fibre and other insoluble matters, and a portion of the fat are removed, and starch and sugar are added, to change still more the proportion of fat to the other ingredients. Chocolate differs from many preparations of cocoa, in that less of the cocoa butter is removed, which necessitates the addition of a greater proportion of starch. And this in turn calls for cooking. When the excess of butter is obviated by some other means than the use of starch, then simply adding boiling water or milk to the preparation will suffice. Chocolate differs still further from cocoa, in that, crushed by heated rollers, the ingredients form a paste which may be pressed into moulds. Chocolate is often flavored; cinnamon, cloves, musk, and vanilla are used for this purpose.
Use one pound of cocoa, five pounds granulated sugar, three and one half quarts boiling water and two ounces vanilla. Put half the water in a double-boiler, add the cocoa and let stand undisturbed until the cocoa is moistened; stir, add the rest of the water and stir again. Let cook one hour. Add the sugar, stir, then cook half an hour. When cold add the vanilla and strain through a cheesecloth. Serve at once or set aside in cans. To serve two, divide one fourth of a cup of syrup between two cups, pour three fourths of a cup of hot milk into each.
2 cups of scalded milk. 2 tablespoonfuls of cocoa powder. 2 cups of boiling water. 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar.
Scald the milk in a double-boiler; mix the sugar and cocoa, stir in the boiling water, gradually, and let boil five or six minutes; turn the liquid into the hot milk, and beat with a whisk, or egg-beater, five minutes. Serve with additional sugar and cream, if desired.
2 ounces of chocolate. 1 cup of boiling water. 4 tablespoonfuls of sugar. 3 cups of scalded milk.
Break the chocolate into pieces and melt over hot water; add the sugar and boiling water, and stir until smooth and glossy; let cook five or six minutes; add part of the milk, and when well mixed pour into the rest of the milk; let stand over the fire five or six minutes, beating meanwhile with a whisk or egg-beater, to make frothy and prevent a skin from forming on the surface.
On occasion a flavoring of vanilla, or cinnamon, one or both, is a pleasing addition to a pot of cocoa, or chocolate. If cinnamon bark be used, let it steep in the milk while scalding the latter. Add ground cinnamon to the sugar and cocoa powder, or to the melted chocolate. Whipped or frothed cream may be added to the liquid just before removing from the fire, and also to each cup as it is served.