Seeds For Soups

If the fresh or dried vegetables are not at hand, seeds, such as celery, carrot-seed, etc., can be substituted for a flavoring.

How To Chop Suet

Sprinkle flour over it while chopping, whch will prevent the pieces from adhering.

Rising-Powder Proportions

To 1 quart of flour, use 2 1/2 tea-spoonfuls of baking-powder; or,

To 1 quart of flour, use 1 tea-spoonful of soda, and 2 tea-spoonfuls of cream of tartar; or,

To 1 quart of flour, use 1 cupful of sour milk, and 1 tea-spoonful of soda.

How To Make Roux

A roux is a mixture of butter and flour cooked. It is generally added, uncooked, to thicken a sauce or a soup; but the flavor is much better if it is first cooked, and the sauce or soup is added to it. Professional French cooks always manage it in this way. When the butter is first brought to the boiling-point, in a small stew-pan or cup, the sifted flour is sprinkled in, and both are mixed well together over the fire with an egg-whisk, until the flour is well cooked; a part of the sauce or soup is then stirred in until it becomes smooth and thin enough to add to the main sauce or soup. If the roux is intended for a white sauce, it is not allowed to color; if for a brown sauce, it may color a little, or browned flour may be used.


As I have already said, frying implies immersing in fat or oil; but sauteing means to cook in a spider or saute pan, with just enough hot fat to keep the article, while being cooked, from sticking. The fat should always be quite hot before placing on it any thing to cook.