Table 43 Formulas for Angel Food Cake

Formula

Egg white

Sugar

Flour

Cream of tartar

Amount of salt

Meas. Cups

Wt. Gm.

Meas. Cups

Wt. Gm.

Meas. Cups

Wt. Gm.

I ....

1

244

1 1/4

250

1

100

1 t.

1/4 t.

II ....

1

244

1 1/2

300

1

100

1 t.

1/4 t.

III ....

1 1/2

366

1 1/2

300

1

100

1 1/2 t.

1/2 t.

IV ....

1 1/2

366

1 1/4

250

4/5

80

l t.

1/4 t.

V ....

1 3/4

427

1 1/2

300

1

100

2 t.

1/2 t.

VI ....

1

244

1

200

1

100

1 t.

1/4 t.

VII ....

1

246

2 1/16

266

15/16

90

1 t.

1/4 t.

VIII ....

1

246

1 3/16

169

1/2

48

1 t.

1/4 t.

IX ....

1

246

1 1/2

222

15/16

90

1 t.

1/4 t.

Only the first five formulas have been made in class work at 900-feet elevation. Excellent cakes may be made from these five formulas, though II is less likely to be successful. The last three formulas are from Barmore's tables; VII and VIII are for 1000-feet elevation with the largest and smallest amounts of flour advocated, respectively. Further analysis of these formulas is found in Table 44.

Since sugar tends to prevent coagulation of the egg white, there is an amount of sugar which, if exceeded, will prevent coagulation to such an extent that the cake is so tender it will fall. It is desirable to use an amount that will just prevent the cake from falling. However, this particular amount of sugar will depend somewhat upon the amount of flour. The flour increases the toughness of the cake. Hence there is a ratio of sugar to flour, so that, within certain limits, as the sugar is decreased the flour must also be decreased. For the formulas given the ratio of sugar to flour is 3 to 1 in four of the recipes and 2.5 to 1 in the standard recipe.

The illustrations are all for angel cakes which were baked from the same quantity of material, one-sixth of the recipe. The pans were small ones so that the photographs are nearly actual size. Thus the illustrations show the comparative volume of the cakes, and the cells are nearly actual size.

Amount of Sugar and Flour per Gram of Egg White and Ratio of Sugar to Flour (Angel Cake)

Formula and source

Egg white Gm.

Sugar Gm.

Flour Gm.

Ratio of sugar to flour

I Standard ....................................

1

1.02

0.41

2.5

II ......................

1

1.23

0.41

3.0

111 Thirteen egg...........

1

0.82

0.27

3.0

IV Cedarquist............

1

0.68

0.23

3.0

V Prize (LA. P. I.)*......

1

0.70

0.22

3.1

VI Hunt and St. John.....

1

0.82

0.41

2.0

VII Barmore (1000 ft.).....

1

1.08

0.36

2.9

VIII Barmore (1000 ft.).....

1

0.69

0.20

3.5

IX Barmore (5000 ft.).....

1

0.90

0.36

2.5

* Institute American Poultry Industries.

Beating the egg whites for angel cake. The beating of the egg whites is one of the important steps in making angel cake. For the best results, the whites should not be beaten quite as stiff as for foamy omelets and souffles. The probable reasons for this are the stabilizing influence of sugar on the egg-white foam and the absorption of moisture by the flour.

If the egg whites are not beaten a cake of small volume and very soggy texture is obtained. When the egg white is beaten the volume of the cake increases with the degree of stiffness of the whites, until a stage is reached at which the greatest volume is attained. Continued beating of the egg white after that to produce the maximum volume gradually reduces the volume of the cake, the reduction in volume being in proportion to the amount of over-beating of the egg white. The influence of the extent of beating the egg white on the volume of the cake is shown in Figs. 40 and 41, Experiments 69,C and E.

Result of insufficient beating of the egg white. The egg whites for the cakes in Fig. 40, Experiment 69C, were all beaten together. One-third of the total weight of the egg white was removed for cake 1 after the egg whites were beaten until they flowed when the bowl was partially inverted. The volume is less than when the whites were beaten to flow very slowly for cake 2. When the egg whites are whipped too little, not as much air is enclosed and the film of egg white surrounding the air bubbles is not as thin as it is with longer beating. If the egg white is beaten still less than for the illustration, the volume is still smaller. With very little beating, the egg white is quite runny and the cake is tough and compact.

Occasionally a gummy layer is found in the bottom of the baked cake. It is often difficult to give an explanation for this, but it may sometimes be due to insufficient whipping of the egg whites.

Maximum beating of the egg white. The whites for the cakes in Fig. 37, for cake 2, Fig. 40, and for cake 1, Fig. 41, were beaten until the tip end of peaks was slightly rounded and fallen. The cakes are more tender and have a larger volume than when the whites are not beaten sufficiently. The appearance and stiffness of the egg whites for a maximum volume in the cake vary slightly with the type and kind of egg beater used.

Angel Cake Part 3 65

Fig. 36. - The bowl on the right with the sloping sides is a good type for mixing and folding.

The bowl on the left has sides that are too straight for efficient folding.

The spatula on the right has a round handle that fits the hand.

The spatula on the left has 4 edges that tend to blister the hand with long folding.

With a maximum volume of the cake the cell walls are thinner, which tends to produce a more tender cake.

Effect of over-beating the egg white. For cake 3, Fig. 40, the egg whites were beaten until quite stiff. The volume is decidedly less than for cake 2. Longer beating results in a still smaller volume, see cake 3, Fig. 41. The smaller volume with over-beating is due to excess coagulation of the egg white by beating. This lessens the elasticity of the egg white; hence, when the air bubbles enclosed in the beaten egg white expand from the heat during baking, some of the cell walls rupture instead of expanding. When a number of the cells rupture during baking, several cell walls coalesce, the cell walls are thicker, and the volume is reduced.

Mixing angel cake. After the egg whites are beaten the other ingredients are folded into the cake. The water, cream of tartar, and the salt are added to the partially beaten egg whites. The flavoring may also be added to the egg white at the same time as the cream of tartar. This eliminates extra folding after the sugar and flour are added. For directions for folding, see Experiment 68; and for types of bowls, Fig. 36.

Sugar. The sugar may be folded into the egg whites after they are beaten or whipped with the whites. The latter is sometimes called the meringue method. A certain amount of folding of the sugar with the egg white results in a cake of the best texture and tenderness. Too little folding does not blend the sugar sufficiently with the beaten whites; then the flour does not fold in readily and heavy spots may be found throughout the cake. They may be quite small, but soggy and thick, and sometimes they contain just a trace of dry flour in the thickened spot. Such a spot is shown in Fig. 37, cake 1. The cakes usually increase in volume with longer folding of the sugar, reaching a maximum with about 60 strokes; then a slight decrease occurs with longer mixing. Sometimes the maximum volume occurs after folding about 40 strokes and sometimes after about 80 strokes. The tenderness of the cakes usually varies more with longer folding of the sugar than the volume.