Formerly it was thought that the particular flavor of butter was due to the greater proportion of the lower saturated fatty acids, but now it is known that butters with satisfactory flavor and aroma (Michaelian, Farmer, and Hammer) contain considerable quantities of acetylmethyl-carbinol plus diacetyl. The acetylmethylcarbinol in a pure condition is odorless, but by bacterial action it is changed to diacetyl, which in concentrations of 0.0002 to 0.0004 per cent in or added to neutral butter gives a characteristic aroma.

Size of fat globules. The fat in milk is found in small globules. These fat globules which are microscopic in size are suspended in the milk. They vary in size from 0.10 to 22.0. Most of the globules are less than 10 and average about 3 in diameter. The size of the fat globules varies (1) with different breeds, being larger in milk from Jersey and Guernsey than in milk from other breeds, (2) with the lactation period, decreasing in size with length of the lactation period, and (3) with feed. Dry feed tends to decrease the size of the globules, succulent feed to increase their size.

Creaming. The specific gravity of the fat globules is less than that of the fluid of the milk. Hence there is a tendency for them to rise to the surface to form a cream layer. The extent of creaming depends upon several factors, such as the size of the fat globules, temperature of the milk, acidity, physical state of the fat, etc. Creaming occurs more rapidly in milk when the fat globules are quite large than when they are smaller. In rising to the top of the milk the globules of fat clump together, and this clumping increases the tendency for them to rise to the surface of the milk. As the larger clumps rise they may carry many of the smaller globules to the surface. Therefore, clumping not only aids the completeness of creaming but also the rate, for the rate is more rapid when the fat particles clump quickly. Rogers states that the factors affecting clumping are "temperature, the acidity, the fat content and its degree of dispersion, the degree of agitation, and the fluidity of the system. The fat content, the degree of agitation and the fluidity of the system determine the probability of collisions of the globules." The tendency of the fat globules to clump is greatest when the milk is cooled rapidly to 7° to 8°C, but if the fat globules become solid at the low temperature before creaming is allowed to take place the rate of creaming is retarded. The temperature that favors clumping is also best for whipping the cream. Most cream is separated from the milk by mechanical means. The fat particles left in the milk after separating the cream are those less than 1u and those between 1 and 2u in diameter.

Butter. The fat globules in cow's milk are suspended in the milk and thus do not form a permanent emulsion, though they may be so reduced in size by homogenization that they form a permanent emulsion. Of the different theories formulated for explaining the manner in which emulsions are stabilized the adsorption film theory is usually connected with milk. Substances that lower surface tension tend to collect at the interface between two non-miscible systems. Proteins tend to lower the surface tension, hence tend to collect at the interface. The layer or film around the fat globules probably consists of adsorbed calcium caseinate, with some lactal-bumin, globulin, and calcium phosphate. This membrane may be weakened or broken in various ways. When milk is heated slowly, the membrane surrounding some of the fat globules may be broken and a number of globules may coalesce. Sometimes milk that has been heated and then cooled has a more oily appearance due to this coalescing of the fat globules. The membrane surrounding the fat particles may be broken by mechanical agitation. Formation of butter in churning is brought about in this manner.

There are two theories regarding butter formation. One is that the emulsion is reversed from the type found in the milk and that the butter is a water-in-fat emulsion. The other view is that butter is formed by packing the fat globules into a compact mass, and that water and air are enmeshed during this process. Temperature and the formation of a foam are both important in churning. At a temperature above 65°C. there is no aggregation of fat particles. Below 65° the tendency to clump increases and is at a maximum at 7° to 8°C. A favorable temperature for butter formation is below 24° and above 10°C. At temperatures below 4°C. the fat globules do not adhere to each other and aggregation does not take place. At temperatures above the melting point of butter, no butter is formed.

The fat particles tend to clump at the liquid/air interface, so that air beaten in during the churning process accelerates clumping of the fat.

Butter may be churned from sweet or sour cream. The flavor of butter from the sweet cream is milder and different from that of the sour-cream butter. Many housekeepers prefer the sweet-cream butter for table use and the sour-cream butter for cooking.

The adsorbed films surrounding the fat globules may also be destroyed by the addition of acid or alkali. It is by these methods that the fat is set free for a quantitative determination. In the Babcock test, acid is used for liberating the fat globules; in the Hoyberg test alkali is used. The Bab-cock, or some modification of it, is the one usually employed in estimating the fat content of milk and cream.

Protein. The chief proteins found in milk in order of their decreasing amounts are casein, lactalbumin, and lactoglobulin.

Casein. Casein belongs to the group of phosphoproteins. The form in which the phosphorus exists in the casein is not definitely known, but it is believed to be present in the form of combined phosphoric acid. Casein forms about 3 per cent of cow's milk.

At its isoelectric point, which is pH 4.6, casein is nearly insoluble in water. Casein is amphoteric and forms salts with acids and alkalies. Fresh milk has a reaction of about pH 6.6, so that the casein is present in the milk as salts of bases and is found as calcium and magnesium caseinates. All the alkali caseinates are soluble in water, though the salts of the alkaline earths are less soluble than the alkali ones. Loeb states that below pH 4.6 the casein chloride, casein acetate, and casein lactate are very soluble in water, but casein sulfate and casein oxalate are difficultly soluble.

According to Zoller, pure casein when heated in water begins to imbibe water at 80° to 90°C. and becomes plastic. In this form it can be molded and shaped. Upon cooling it becomes very hard.

Casein can be precipitated from milk by bringing the milk to the isoelectric point of casein. Coagulation of casein will be considered later.

Lactalbumin. The proportion of lactalbumin in milk is much lower than that of casein. It forms about 0.50 per cent of cow's milk. Its isoelectric point is pH 4.55. Since the reaction of fresh milk is about pH 6.6, it is on the alkaline side of the isoelectric point of lactalbumin. Thus is it possible that the lactalbumin is found combined as salts of bases, such as calcium and magnesium albuminates. Osborne and Wakeman think it is uncom-bined. Lactalbumin is soluble in water, and is coagulated by heating in solution to a temperature of about 70°C. Coagulation may not be complete at this temperature. Palmer states that the lactalbumin is more highly dispersed than the other colloidal constituents of the milk.

Lactoglobulin. Lactoglobulin occurs in milk in very small quantities, about 0.05 per cent of cow's milk. Lactoglobulin is insoluble in distilled water, but it is soluble in dilute solutions of strong bases or acids, and in dilute salt solutions. It is coagulable by heat.