Prepare 1/4 of the recipe, reserving 1 tablespoon of flour for the board. Mix the dough 80 strokes with a wooden spoon. Follow directions for rolling and cutting. Cook the 6 doughnuts for 3 minutes at 175° to 180°C. (345° to 355°F.).

1. Use 5 1/2 cups of flour (616 grams) for the full recipe.

2. Use 5 1/4 cups of flour (588 grams) for the full recipe.

3. Use 5 cups of flour (560 grams) for the full recipe.

4. Use 4 3/4 cups of flour (532 grams) for the full recipe.

B. To determine the effect of extent of mixing upon tenderness, texture, and fat absorption of doughnuts.

1. Prepare the full recipe, reserving 4 tablespoons of flour for rolling. Use the proportion of flour found best under A. Mix a total of 40 strokes with a wooden spoon. Observe and record any changes in the dough during mixing. Remove approximately 1/4 of the dough (about 280 grams). Follow directions for rolling. Cook the 6 doughnuts for 3 minutes at 175° to 180°C. Use the remaining dough in the following experiments.

2. Mix the remaining dough from B1 a total of 60 strokes and remove approximately 280 grams. Proceed as in B1.

3. Mix the remaining dough from B2 a total of 80 strokes. Remove approximately 280 grams. Proceed as in B1.

4. Mix the remaining dough from B3 a total of 100 strokes. Proceed as in B1.

Weight of doughnuts before cooking

Weight of doughnuts after cooking

Amount of fat absorbed

Appearance

Color

Volume

Texture

Comments

Grams

Per cent

C. Temperature and time of cooking.

Prepare 1/4 the recipe. Use the proportion of flour found best under A, and mix with the number of strokes found best under B.

1. Cook 2 minutes at 155° to 160°C. (310° to 320°F.).

2. Repeat C1, but cook 3 minutes.

3. Repeat C1, but cook 4 minutes.

4. Repeat C1, but cook 2 minutes at 175° to 180°C. (345° to 355°F.).

5. Repeat C1, but cook 3 minutes at 175° to 180°C.

6. Repeat C1, but cook 4 minutes at 175° to 180°C.

7. Repeat C1, but cook 2 minutes at 195° to 200°C. (380° to 390°F.).

8. Repeat C1, but cook 3 minutes at 195° to 200°C.

9. Repeat C1, but cook 4 minutes at 195° to 200°C.

D. To determine the effect of letting the dough stand a short time before cooking upon fat absorption.

1. Prepare all the recipe. Reserve 4 tablespoons of flour for rolling. Use the proportion of flour found best under A and the number of strokes for mixing found best under B. Use the time and temperature of cooking found best under C. Use approximately 1/4 of the dough and cook the doughnuts as soon as possible after mixing and rolling.

2. Use approximately 1/4 of the dough and let the doughnuts stand 1/2 hour or longer after rolling and cutting before they are cooked. Use the remaining dough for the following experiments.

3. Let approximately 1/4 of the dough from D1 stand for 1/2 hour or longer; then roll, cut, and cook the doughnuts.

4. Let 1/4 of the dough from D1 stand 1/2 hour or longer. After the dough has stood, mix with 10 additional strokes before rolling.

If desired, 1 1/4 times the recipe may be mixed and one part of the dough chilled 1/2 hour or longer before rolling.

E. To determine the effect upon the texture and fat absorption of increasing the proportion of sugar.

1. Prepare the full recipe, using the proportion of flour found best under A. Reserve 4 tablespoons of flour for rolling. Increase the sugar to 1 1/2 cups (300 grams). Mix 140 strokes with a wooden spoon and remove approximately 1/4 of the dough (about 300 grams). Roll according to directions. Cook 6 doughnuts at 175° to 180°C. for 3 minutes or at the temperature and time found desirable under C.

2. Mix the remaining dough from E1 a total of 160 strokes and remove approximately 300 grams. Follow directions under E1.

3. Mix the remaining dough from E2 a total of 180 strokes and remove approximately 300 grams. Follow directions under E1.

4. Mix the remaining dough from E3 a total of 200 strokes. Follow directions under E1.

F. To determine the effect upon the texture and fat absorption of increasing the fat in the recipe.

1. Increase the fat in the recipe to 4 tablespoons. Prepare 1/2 the recipe, reserving 2 tablespoons of flour for rolling. Use the proportion of flour found best under A. Mix 80 strokes with a wooden spoon and remove approximately 1/2. of the dough (about 280 grams). Follow directions under E1.

2. Mix the remaining dough from Fl a total of 100 strokes. Follow directions under E1.

G. To determine the effect upon the texture and the fat absorption of increasing the egg in the recipe.

Increase the eggs in the recipe to 3. Repeat directions for F.

H. To determine the effect upon the texture and fat absorption of adding the flour and milk in portions.

Prepare 1/4 of the recipe. Use the proportion of flour found best under A and the number of strokes found best for mixing under B. Follow directions for cooking used for B. Compare with doughnuts from B. Add approximately 1/3 of the flour and 1/3 of the milk to the egg-sugar mixture. Stir approximately 1/3 of the total number of strokes to be used for mixing. Add the second 1/3 of the milk and flour, stirring 1/3 of the total number of strokes. Add the remainder of the flour and milk and stir the number of strokes needed to make the total desired.

If the flour and milk are to be stirred a total of 80 strokes, the first 1/3 may be stirred 25 strokes, the second 1/3 25 strokes, and the remainder of the flour 30 strokes to make a total of 80 strokes.

What is the effect of increased mixing of the dough upon fat absorption in doughnuts? Does the dough become more or less sticky with longer mixing? Which amount of mixing gives the best flavor and the best texture? The least fat absorption? What is the effect of length of time of cooking upon fat absorption of doughnuts? The effect of temperature of cooking? Compare the dough that has stood with the dough that did not stand, in respect to the ease of rolling and the consistency. Does chilling increase the ease of rolling? What is the effect upon the texture and the fat absorption of standing before cooking?