What is the effect of increasing the sugar in the recipe upon fat absorption? Upon texture? Does increase of sugar in the recipe require longer mixing of the dough? Is there any relation between the texture of the doughnuts with increased sugar and the texture of cakes when the proportion of sugar is increased? What is the effect of increasing the proportion of egg upon the texture of the doughnuts? Upon fat absorption? Of increasing the fat? Adding the flour in portions instead of all at once? Which doughnuts have the best texture? The best flavor?

Write a summary of the factors that affect the fat absorption in frying doughnuts. Compare your results with those published in the literature, and with previous classes.

Suggestions for additional experiments with doughnuts.

1. Vary the method of mixing.

2. Vary the kind of fat used and its temperature when added to the doughnuts.

3. Determine the amount of mixing that is desirable with each type of baking powder.

4. Turn the doughnuts several times during cooking.


Experiment 95

To determine the factors that influence the quality of pastry. Recipe:

Flour, all-purpose




1 cup

1/3 cup

1/2 teaspoon

112 grams 66 grams 2 gramsDirections for mixing:

The flour may be either a hard- or soft-wheat all-purpose one. If a soft-wheat flour is used, it is probably preferable to reduce the proportion of fat to 1/4 cup (50 grams).

Place the weighed flour and the salt in a bowl, add the fat, and cut into the flour with a fat cutter. The fat may be worked into the flour by rubbing between the tips of the fingers. The fat should be mixed with the flour until the mixture resembles coarse corn meal. The number of strokes required to cut the fat into the flour will vary, the hard, cold fats requiring far more strokes than the softened fats or the oil. A record may be kept of the number of strokes required for comparison of ease of mixing. In mixing the fat with the finger tips, work quickly so as not to melt the fat. Compare your fat and flour mixture with your neighbors' to see if they are about the same consistency. Add the water in such a manner that it is distributed rather evenly over the flour mixture. Cut the water into the fat and flour, or stir with a two-tined fork.

The pastry rolls better if allowed to stand about 5 minutes after mixing. Then work into a ball, using 8 motions of the hand to get the material together. In rolling the pastry some can be rolled without adding flour to the board, but do not use more than 1 teaspoon of flour for each pastry. The pastry may be rolled between boards 1/8 to 3/16 inch in thickness, which are tacked to the bread board. Strips of wax paper just wide enough to fit between the cleats may be used for rolling and handling the pastry. One piece of paper is placed between the cleats. The dough to be rolled is placed on this paper and a second sheet of paper is placed over the dough. After rolling the top paper is removed. The dough is lifted on the lower sheet of paper and is placed on the baking sheet or tin by inverting the paper, pressing lightly, and then removing the paper. If the dough is rolled in long strips, it should be shaped into a long strip before rolling. For the pastries in which the proportion of ingredients is changed until they will not roll easily, the pastry can be partially rolled, then placed in the pan and patted quickly to the same thickness as the rolled pastry. If the pastries are not the same thickness they bake differently and require different lengths of time for baking.

Bake in pans of the same size, shape, and material. Bake at 220° to 225°C. (425° to 435°F.), until a light golden brown.

A. To determine the proportion of water to give a desirable pastry with the brand of flour used.

1. Use 24 grams or cc. of water for the full recipe. Mix 40 strokes with a two- or three-tined fork.

2. Repeat A1, but use 30 grams or cc. of water for the full recipe. 3.. Repeat A1, but use 36 grams or cc. of water for the full recipe. 4. Repeat A1, but use 42 grams or cc. of water for the full recipe.

B. To determine the extent of mixing required to give a desirable pastry.

1. Prepare the full recipe, using lard or other fat. Cut the fat into the flour as outlined in the directions. Use the proportion of water found best under A and mix 20 strokes with a two- or three-tined fork. Remove approximately 1/4 of the dough (about 44 grams). Roll and bake.

2. Mix the remainder of the dough from B1, a total of 30 strokes. Remove about 44 grams of the dough and bake.

3. Mix the remainder of the dough from B2, a total of 40 strokes. Remove about 44 grams of the dough and bake.

4. Mix the remainder of the dough from B3, a total of 50 strokes. Roll and bake.

C. To determine the effect on shortness of the pastry of using different kinds of fat.

1. Use an all-purpose flour and butter. Repeat directions under B. Use the proportion of water found best under A.

2. Repeat C1, but use a hydrogenated cottonseed oil.

3. Repeat C1, but use lard.

4. Repeat C1, but use oil.

5. Repeat C1, but use a hydrogenated lard.

The following headings are suggested for pastry records.

Number of strokes

For cutting fat

For mixing water





D. To determine the effect of type of flour.

If a hard-wheat flour has been used, substitute a soft-wheat flour or vice versa. Repeat B using any fat desired.

What is the effect of increased mixing upon the tenderness of pastry? Upon its flakiness? Which amount of mixing results in the best pastry? What is the effect of substituting soft-wheat for hard-wheat flour? Can the fat be reduced when pastry flour is used? Can the pastry-flour pastries be mixed longer than bread-flour ones? Which pastries roll easiest? Which are difficult to handle? Which fat gives the shortest pastry? Which the toughest? Which fat produces the most flaky pastry? Which the least flaky?