This section is from the book "Experimental Cookery From The Chemical And Physical Standpoint", by Belle Lowe. Also available from Amazon: Experimental cookery.
Compare the texture and consistency of each fudge. What temperature is most desirable for fudge that is not kneaded? For fudge which is kneaded? If granular fudge is desired and the sirup is stirred while hot, should the sirup be cooked to the same degree as for fudge that is beaten after cooling? In making 4 times the recipe would you take 4 times the quantity of liquid? Why?
A. Temperature to which the sirup is cooked.
Temperature cooked to
Time required to beat to crystallize
B. Kind of liquid.
Cook to the temperature found best under 9A.
1. Use water for the liquid.
2. Use milk for the liquid.
3. Use cream for the liquid.
4. Use cream for the liquid and omit the butter.
C. Time of adding the fat.
1. Add fat at first so that it is in the sirup during the cooking process.
2. Add fat after removing from the fire. Put fat on top of hot fudge, but do not stir until cool enough to beat. Compare flavor and texture with the fudge under C1.
D. The proportion of cocoa used.
The thermometers should have the same boiling point and all conditions should be carefully standardized. Follow directions under A.
1. Substitute 1 tablespoon (7 grams) cocoa for the chocolate. Cook to 114°C.
2. Substitute 2 tablespoons (14 grams) cocoa for the chocolate. Cook to 113°C.
3. Substitute 3 tablespoons (21 grams) cocoa for the chocolate. Cook to 1.12°C.
4. Substitute 4 tablespoons (28 grams) cocoa for the chocolate. Cook to 111°C.
5. Substitute 5 tablespoons (35 grams) cocoa for the chocolate. Cook to 110°C.
If D1 is too hard repeat the series cooking D1 to 113°C. and decreasing the temperature 0.5° for each tablespoon of cocoa added. Place portions of the fudges away to ripen. Compare texture and flavor. Which proportion of cocoa do you prefer?
Write a summary of the factors that influence the flavor and consistency of fudge.
Suggestions for Variations of Experiments or Additional
Experiments with Fudge
Prepare fudge by adding 1 tablespoon of corn sirup to the recipe.
Prepare fudge by adding 2 tablespoons of corn sirup to the recipe. Compare flavor, texture, glossiness, and keeping qualities with fudges made under Experiment 9.
Prepare fudge by adding fondant to the fudge.
To determine the effect of a weak alkali and heat upon crystalline dextrose when it is used in fondant. Recipe:
Crystalline dextrose 1 cup
Water 1/3 cup
1. Use distilled water and cook until a medium firm ball is formed in cold water. Cool to 50°C. and beat.
2. Repeat 1, but substitute hard water for the distilled water.
3. Use 20 per cent, or 1/5 cup, of dextrose, and 80 per cent, or 4/5 cup, of sucrose. Use distilled water and cook until a soft ball is formed in cold water. What is the temperature? Cool to 50°C. and beat.
4. Repeat 3, but substitute hard water for the distilled water.
5. Repeat 3, but add 200 parts of magnesium carbonate per million parts of water to the recipe. (This is less than the proportions of carbonates found in much of the water used in different sections of the country.)
6. Repeat 3, but add 1/64 teaspoon of soda to the recipe.
7. Repeat 3, but add 1 tablespoon of vinegar or lemon juice to the recipe. Cream of tartar, 1/4 teaspoon, may be used for the vinegar or lemon juice.
The main principles of sugar cookery are covered, and some are repeated, in the preceding experiments. Some frostings and some candies have added substances, like egg white, which retard crystallization. The principles for cooking are the same as those used in cooking and preparing the candies of the preceding experiments. However, to have frostings a consistency to spread and cut well, variations in temperature of cooking from that of candy may be necessary.
Suggestions for Additional Experiments
1. Prepare chocolate fudge icing and use on cake or cookies. Determine the temperature to which the sirup should be cooked.
2. Substitute brown sugar for white sugar in icing.
3. Make caramel or burnt-sugar icing by melting one-half the sugar to be used to a golden brown color. Then dissolve in water. Add the remainder of the sugar, and the butter, and cook to the same temperatures used for chocolate fudge icing. Which temperature produces the best texture of icing?
4. Prepare boiled icing by pouring the cooked sirup over beaten egg white. Prepare an outline for making this type of icing, giving variations in temperature to which the sirup is cooked before adding to the egg white and the temperature to which the sirup is cooled before adding the sirup to the egg white. Vary the amount of sugar used for different proportions of egg. Consult any reference that you wish for making your outline and use the results of any of the sugar experiments.
For a control use 1 cup sugar, 200 grams, 1/4 cup corn sirup, 82 grams, and 1/4 cup of water. Cook to 119° or 120°C. and pour slowly into 1 stiffly beaten egg white, beating as the sirup is added. For divinity beat until pieces dropped on wax paper will hold their shape.