This section is from the book "Experimental Cookery From The Chemical And Physical Standpoint", by Belle Lowe. Also available from Amazon: Experimental cookery.
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To determine the temperature of the brine when different proportions of ice and salt are mixed.
The ice for all the freezing experiments should be in pieces of the same size, for the very large pieces melt more slowly because of small surface area. Put the ice through the ice crusher, which gives pieces of more uniform size. If it cannot be crushed in a crusher, but is broken with a hammer or shaved with a pick, put it through a large-screen mesh to obtain pieces of uniform size. The temperature obtained will be only approximate. For very accurate, careful work the temperature must be taken in insulated, closed flasks.
1. Weigh 1/4 pound of rock salt and an equal amount of ice. Mix well. Find the minimum temperature that can be obtained with this mixture and the length of time required to reach it.
Repeat using the following proportions.
2. One part of salt (1/4 lb.) to 3 of ice (3/4 lb.).
3. One part of salt (1/8 lb.) to 6 of ice (3/4 lb.).
4. One part of salt (1/8 lb.) to 8 of ice (1 lb.).
5. Use equal parts of sugar to ice (1/8 lb. of each).
What would the result be if the above experiments were repeated using coarse crystalline salt in place of the rock salt? Does the sugar have the same effect as salt? Why?
Lowest temperature obtained
Time required to reach the lowest temperature