This section is from the book "Experimental Cookery From The Chemical And Physical Standpoint", by Belle Lowe. Also available from Amazon: Experimental cookery.
A. To determine the effect of varying the method of combining the ingredients in making mayonnaise.
1. Put the egg yolk into a small bowl, add the seasonings and the vinegar, and beat with a rotary egg beater. It may be necessary to tilt the bowl or egg beater at first, in order that the egg beater blades may come in contact with the small amount of material. Add the oil in small quantities at first, about 1/2 teaspoon, then in larger quantities as the emulsion is formed.
2. Mix the egg yolk and seasoning. Follow directions under Al, for beating. Add about 1/2 teaspoon of oil. Beat, then add 1/2 teaspoon of vinegar. Beat. Continue adding oil and vinegar alternately. After all the vinegar is added, add the oil in larger quantities.
3. Beat the egg yolk. Follow directions under Al, for beating. Add the oil a few drops at a time. After the emulsion is forming add the oil in larger quantities. Add the vinegar slowly after the oil is added. Add the seasoning last.
Ease of making
Results and conclusions.
B. To determine the effect of the temperature of the ingredients in making mayonnaise.
1. Add the vinegar and seasoning to the egg yolk. Beat. Chill in the refrigerator, then set mixing bowl in ice, and add chilled oil slowly. Follow directions under A1, for adding the oil.
2. Heat the oil and vinegar to 100°C. Combine as in A1.
C. To see how much oil can be added for the first addition to 1 egg yolk and 15 cc. of vinegar and obtain an emulsion.
1. Repeat Al, but add 6 or 7 teaspoons of oil at first, then beat and emulsify before more oil is added. Add the same amount of oil for the second portion; then increase the amount for the following additions of oil.
2. If 7 teaspoons of oil can be added under CI, repeat with 8 teaspoons. Repeat CI, adding 9 or 10 teaspoons of oil. Increase the quantity of oil for the first addition as long as an emulsion is obtained.
3. Put all the ingredients in the mixing bowl together. Then beat with a rotary egg beater. After beating a few seconds, let the mixture stand; then beat again. Is an emulsion obtained?
D. To determine the amount of oil that can be added to mayonnaise without breaking the emulsion.
1. Follow directions under A1, but add all the oil possible to the mayonnaise. Keep a record of the amount of oil added. Compare the consistency of the mayonnaise with that obtained in other experiments. Determine its keeping qualities.
2. Repeat D1, but add oil until the emulsion breaks. If oil has been added until the emulsion breaks under D1, use it for this experiment and repeat D2, but do not add quite so much oil. Put a small portion of the broken emulsion, about a tablespoon, in a jelly glass. Label and cover. Divide the remaining broken mass into three parts.
a. Add part one to an egg yolk gradually, beating with the egg beater during the process. What happens?
b. Repeat D2,a, but add the second portion of curdled emulsion gradually to a tablespoon of water or vinegar.
c. Add a tablespoon of water or vinegar to the third portion of broken emulsion. Beat. What happens?
E. To determine the kinds of fat that may be used in mayonnaise.
1. Repeat A1, but substitute butter for the oil. Melt the butter over hot water and keep warm while adding to the egg yolk and seasonings.
2. Repeat El, but use lard, Crisco, or Snowdrift.
F. To determine the effect of substituting other emulsifying agents for the egg yolk in making salad dressing.
1. Substitute 1 1/2 tablespoons of cornstarch paste for the egg yolk in the mayonnaise recipe. (Make the paste by cooking 1 1/2 tablespoons of cornstarch with 1 cup of water.) When the paste is cool but not firm, add the seasonings and vinegar to 1 1/2 tablespoons of the paste and beat with rotary egg beater. Add the oil slowly at first, then more rapidly after the emulsion begins to form.
2. Substitute1 1/2 tablespoons of gelatin for the egg yolk in the mayonnaise recipe. (Make gelatin solution by using 3 teaspoons of gelatin to 1 cup of water.) When the gelatin is thick but not firm put 1 1/2 tablespoons in a mixing bowl. Add the seasonings, and the vinegar. Beat. Add the oil slowly at first, then more rapidly.
3. Substitute 18 grams of egg white for the egg yolk.
4. Substitute 18 grams of whole egg for the egg yolk.
Is there much difference in the method of combining ingredients for mayonnaise when egg yolk is used as the emulsifying agent? What effect does the temperature of the ingredients have on the formation of an emulsion? Did you succeed in obtaining an emulsion when the oil and all the other ingredients were combined in a bowl before beating? What is the largest quantity of oil used for the first addition of oil and a permanent emulsion obtained? How much oil did you succeed in adding to the mayonnaise? By examining the emulsions obtained under the microscope, compare cornstarch paste, gelatin, egg white, and egg yolk as emulsifying agents for emulsions.
To determine the type of emulsion formed with different emulsifying agents and oils or fats.
Use oil or fat stained with Scarlet R. Continue beating the mixture for a few seconds after all the fat or oil is added, even if at first it appears that an emulsion will not form. Examine portions of different steps under the microscope.
1. Use a deep, narrow bowl and a rotary egg beater. Add 25 grams of melted butter gradually to 25 grams of egg white.
2. Add 25 grams of melted butter gradually to 25 grams of casein solution. Make the casein solution by adding some powdered casein to water and stir to dissolve as much as possible. After it settles use the clear liquid. The experiment may be repeated using milk.
3. Repeat 52,1, but use oil instead of butter.
4. Repeat 52,1, but use lard, Crisco, or Snowdrift instead of butter.
5. Repeat 52,2, but use oil instead of butter.
6. Repeat 52,2, but use lard or Crisco instead of butter.
A. To determine the proportion of oil and liquid that separates most slowly in French dressing.
1/2 teaspoon 1/2 teaspoon 1/2 teaspoon 1 teaspoon about 0.8 gram
Add the seasoning to the vinegar and mix. Use a rotary egg beater or a mayonnaise mixer. A 100-cc. graduate is excellent to weigh the oil in. The duplicate portions with lemon juice can be measured by filling to the same height in the graduate. The oil is easily poured from the graduate. Add the oil gradually to the vinegar and seasonings. A duplicate series may be made and the ingredients shaken in a flask.
1. Use 15 grams of vinegar and 82 grams of oil.
2. Use 20 grams of vinegar and 77 grams of oil.
3. Use 25 grams of vinegar and 72 grams of oil.
4. Use 30 grams of vinegar and 67 grams of oil.
B. To determine the effect of substituting lemon juice for the vinegar. Repeat 54A, substituting lemon juice for the vinegar.
C. To determine the effect of increasing the quantity of paprika.
Use the proportion of oil and vinegar found best under A. Different brands of paprika may be used as they may vary in fineness. The seasonings may all be put in a mortar and ground before using.
1. Use 1 teaspoon (2 grams) of paprika.
2. Use 1 1/2 teaspoons (3 grams) of paprika.
3. Use 1 teaspoon (2 grams) of paprika and 1 teaspoon (about 1 gram) of mustard.