A. For Adults
I. Atwater and Benedict's Standard for Total Calories for average man weighing 154 pounds.
Man sleeping requires........
Man sitting at rest.........
Man at light muscular exercise.....
Man at active muscular exercise.................... Man at severe muscular exercise..................... Man at very severe muscular exercise...............
65 calories per hour 100 calories per hour 170 calories per hour 290 calories per hour 450 calories per hour 600 calories per hour
The average woman is supposed to require eight-tenths of the amount needed by the man. This is based on the fact that the average woman weighs eight-tenths of the weight of the average man.
Using the figures given above, the daily requirement for a man of average weight with the given activity would be as follows:
8 hours of sleep [65 cal. needed each hour] .... 6 hours of sitting at rest1 [100 cal. needed each hour]. 5 hours of light exercise 2 [170 cal. needed each hour] . 4 hours of active exercise [290 cal. needed each hour]. 1 hour of severe muscular exercise3 [450 cal. each] 24 Total Calories needed per day
520 calories 600 calories 850 calories 1160 calories 450 calories
1 Eating, reading, writing, etc.
2 Moderate walking, dressing, etc.
3 Chopping wood, digging ditches, etc.
2. Atwater's Standard for Total Calories for adults under different conditions of activity.
Man with hard muscular work..........
Man with moderately active work.........
Man at sedentary or woman with moderately active work......... Man without exercise or woman at light to moderate work........
4150 3400 2700 2450
3. Standards for Protein.
How much protein is desirable is still unsettled. About fifteen per cent of the total calories should come from protein, according to Atwater; twelve per cent, according to Langworthy; eight and one-half per cent, according to Chittenden.
Mothers' milk furnishes a little less than one-tenth of the total calories from protein. As this is by nature intended for the period of greatest growth, this is probably enough for any age, provided the protein is well adapted for use in body-building.
4. Standard for Mineral Elements.
This has not been determined so accurately as has the total calorie requirement. It is probable that there is a larger demand for mineral elements in proportion to the total calorie requirement during growth than in adult life. Calcium, iron, and phosphorus are the mineral elements which are least likely to be present in sufficient amounts. The requirement is usually stated as follows:
Calcium oxide [CaO] ........
Phosphoric acid [P2O5]........
E. B. Forbes of the Ohio Experiment Station says: "Generally speaking, a high ash content of the food is desirable, since the organism is much better able to handle an excess of ash constituents than to meet a deficiency.
It is good practice, therefore, to utilize the water in which foods are cooked, in so far as this can be done without detracting from the acceptability of the food, since the cooking water dissolves out much mineral matter. An abundance of mineral salts in the diet is also desirable, aside from nutritive considerations, because they contribute a laxative character to the food. Foods which are deficient in minerals are apt to be constipating.
"A general character of the mineral nutrients of foods is the predominance of acid or basic elements. If the nutrients are present in the proportions in which they are needed the bases will predominate, and it is probably best that the bases should exceed the acid elements in the diet. It is true, however, that the organism has the capacity to neutralize a considerable excess of acids. Meat, eggs, and cereals have acid ash; vegetables, milk, and most fruits have alkaline ash. The latter group should be liberally represented in the diet."