Custard Ice Cream

A. Prepare Boiled Custard.

Use one-fourth of the following proportions:

EgG

Milk

Sugar

Flavoring

1.

1/2

1 c.

1 tbsp.

1/4 tsp. vanilla and a few grains of salt

2.

1

1 c.

1 tbsp.

1/4 tsp. vanilla and a few grains of salt

3.

2

1 c.

1 tbsp.

1/4 tsp. vanilla and a few grains of salt

Beat the egg slightly, add milk and sugar, and cook over hot water, stirring carefully until the custard coats the spoon. Flavor and cool. Compare the various consistencies obtained. Which is best?

B. Prepare Baked Custards.

Use one-fourth of the following proportions, and the amount of egg determined in A.

Egg

Milk

Sugar

Flavoring

1.

?

1 C.

1 tbsp.

as preferred

2.

?

1 c.

11/2 tbsp.

as preferred

3.

?

1 c.

3 tbsp.

as preferred

Use scalded milk, otherwise mix as in A. Wet an earthen or china mold and pour in the mixture. Set in a dish of water and bake, until when tested with a knife, the blade comes out clean. What effect has the large amount of sugar on the consistency?

C, Prepare Frozen Custard or French Ice Cream.1

I. 1 C. Milk 6 Tbsp. Sugar

1 egg

A pinch of salt

II. 1 C. Thin Cream 1/2 Tbsp. Vanilla

Make a boiled custard from 1; cool, combine with II, and freeze.

Milk

Milk is of great importance as a food, and it is estimated that in the United States the per capita consumption is over half a pint a day. Because it is so universally used and forms so large a part of the diet of children and invalids, most states have set standards to which the milk sold must conform. These standards are not identical in every state, but are more or less similar. The standards often regulate the minimum amount of fat and of total solids (or of total solids, not fat) which the milk must furnish. They are intended to prevent skimming and watering. The average composition of milk is estimated to be:

Composition of Milk

Fat...........

Protein.........

Water..........

Carbohydrate.......

Ash...........

Total solids not fat.....

4.0 per cent. 3.3 per cent. 87.0 per cent. 5.0 per cent. 0.7 per cent. 8.9 per cent.

The fat and protein content of different milks vary much more than do the other constituents. The fat is sometimes as low as three per cent, but may even be six per cent. The protein varies less, from about three per cent to four per cent. The amounts called for in the various state standards run from two and a half per cent of fat in Rhode Island to three and a half per cent in a number of states; the total solids not far from eight and a half to nine per cent. Occasionally a state requires a greater percentage of fat in summer than in winter. It may readily be seen that these requirements are reasonable and not excessive.

1 In French ice cream only the yolks of eggs are used. Some flour may be substituted for egg, if preferred.

Composition of Milk

Composition of Milk.

Because milk sours readily, there is a strong temptation to add preservatives. This practice is forbidden by federal law for milk shipped from state to state, and is usually also forbidden by each state for milk sold locally. Such use of preservatives is less common now than formerly as a result of these laws, and is more likely to occur in small towns without milk inspectors than in large cities. Formaldehyde and borax or boric acid are the more common preservatives used, and they are not at all difficult of detection by chemical analysis. Most state food laboratories will analyze, free of charge, milk sent in by the consumer. If the milk being used does not sour so rapidly as would seem natural, it is wise to send it for analysis. The danger from preservatives is not great, but they are liable to interfere with digestion.

A much greater danger from milk lies in the fact that it is so excellent a medium for the growth of bacteria. It must, therefore, be guarded rigidly from contamination. To begin with, it must come from a healthy cow. As a great danger lies in milk from cows which have tuberculosis, it is wise to have the cows tested with tuberculin. Since the milk must be protected from dust and dirt, the adjacent parts of the cow, as well as the udder, should be cleaned before milking. The stable must be clean, well-drained, light, and airy. A special washable over-garment, worn only at the time of milking, should be used by the milker, and his hands should be freshly washed. Machines for milking which give good service are now obtainable. It is of importance that the pails be sterilized and covered or "hooded." As soon as the milk is drawn, it should be removed from the stable to a separate milk-room used only for this purpose. Not only must this room be light and clean, but it should be screened against flies. It should be unnecessary to strain the milk. If this is done, it should be poured through sterilized cloth or cotton. It is important that the milk be cooled as rapidly as possible and kept at a low temperature, since warmth so greatly stimulates the increase of bacteria.

Certified milk is often obtainable. This means milk which is so handled that it can be guaranteed to be of an unusually good quality. It means inspection not only of the milk itself, from time to time, both as to chemical composition and bacterial count, but also supervision of the herd and of the whole process of production. Such milk is of necessity costly, since this inspection must be paid for.

Pasteurized milk is milk which has been heated to a temperature sufficiently high to kill any disease-producing bacteria which may be present. Usually the milk is heated to 140°-145° F. and kept at this temperature for twenty or thirty minutes, then cooled as rapidly as possible. Pasteurization of milk is often required by the health authorities for market milk which does not come from tuberculin-tested cows. The process of pasteurization changes the taste less and brings about fewer changes in the substances present than does sterilization.

References

U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Farmers' Bulletin No. 363. "Use of Milk as Food."

Farmers' Bulletin No. 413. "Care of Milk and Its Use in the

Home." Farmers' Bulletin No. 457. "Production of Sanitary Milk." Farmers' Bulletin No. 227 or 273. "Clean Milk." Farmers' Bulletin No. 237. "Care of Cream on the Farm."

Questions

1. Can milk be bought in your stores, in "bulk" as well as in bottles? Which will you prefer? Why?

2. What do you have to pay for milk? Does this vary with the season ? Is more than one grade of milk sold?

3. What is the standard for milk in your state? in your city?

4. Will your laws allow the sale of skimmed milk? If so, what does it cost? Does its food value justify this price?

5. What precaution will you take in caring for milk in the home?

6. Why will scalding postpone the souring of milk?

7. Describe a process for pasteurization of milk at home.

8. If you are not sure of the sanitary quality of your milk, why will you recommend pasteurization? Why is this especially necessary in milk for babies and little children?

9. For what purpose are eggs used in custards ?

10. Why are the eggs beaten only slightly for custards? Why beaten at all?

11. How would the use of flour or cornstarch instead of some of the eggs in custard affect the price ? Which of the two would you prefer to substitute and why?