Butter

Whipped Cream Philadelphia Ice Cream

A. Class Experiments. Cream and Butter.

1. Examine a drop of cream under the microscope. Note the globules of fat. Compare with drops of whole and of skimmed milk examined in the same way.

2. Chill a portion of cream and whip1 until stiff. Reserve and finish as whipped-cream pudding.

3. Warm another portion and whip as above. Explain the difference in the result.

4. To make butter.

Shake a weighed and measured amount of ripened cream in a preserve jar, until the fat separates. Add ice. Collect the lumps into a mass and plunge them into ice water and work out all the buttermilk. Weigh. Add salt in the proportion of one-half ounce to every pound of butter. Compute the cost of this butter and compare it with the market price.

B. Prepare Whipped-cream Pudding.

Beat into whipped cream, crumbs rolled from dried macaroons, or from gingersnaps, or dried cake, or stir in dates or figs cut into small pieces. Sweeten and flavor as desired. Candied cherries may be used as decorations.

C. Prepare Philadelphia Ice Cream.

Add flavoring and sweetening to cream and freeze, stirring.

Use 1/3 c. cream; add 2 tsp. sugar and 1/3 tsp. vanilla; or 2 tsp. sugar and 2 tsps. ground macaroons; or melt 1 tsp. grated chocolate, add 1 tbsp. sugar and gradually stir in the cream; or add fresh or canned fruits and sweeten to taste.

Butter ancient times. Even the butter used in the Middle Ages is said to have been semi-liquid and a very inferior article. In modern times butter-making has been a household industry until very recently. The first creamery in the United States was built about 1861. Now such establishments are common, and are often owned by associations of farmers. Sometimes the milk itself is sent to the creamery, in other cases only the cream. The milk or cream, as the case may be, is usually tested and paid for on the basis of the fat content. More and more, cream is being pasteurized before ripening. This kills any disease-producing germs, as well as most of the others, and gives a more uniform product and one which keeps well. The ripening is accomplished by the addition of skimmed milk which is in a state of active fermentation. The mixture is kept at about 70° F., then it is colored and churned. It is interesting to note, so accustomed are we to colored butter, that while the coloring of most foods is forbidden unless so labeled, the coloring of butter is permitted. The washing of the butter after churning is an important part of the process; carelessness means the failure to remove enough of the buttermilk, which gives a streaked butter of poor keeping qualities. Butter made on the farm often fails to be good because of insufficient working. Salting not only gives flavor, but helps in the keeping of the butter, partly by aiding the removal of the buttermilk. The amount of moisture in butter varies, but more than sixteen per cent is usually illegal; the average amount is about twelve per cent.

It is curious to think that butter, now considered such an indispensable article of diet, was not used at all in

1 The efficiency of different cream whippers may be tried out. Some will whip the cream from the top of an ordinary milk bottle.

Butter which is kept too long becomes rancid, that is, of poor flavor and odor. This rancidity may be from two causes, the more common of which is not the decomposition of the fat, but the spoiling of the protein present in the curd. Renovated or process butter is butter which has been reworked after becoming more or less rancid. The butter fat is removed from the rest by melting, and air is blown through to remove any bad odor; then it is mixed with fresh cream or milk, and churned. Some states restrict the sale of this butter, although they permit the sale of poor butter.

Many housewives seem to be ignorant of the fact that poor tasting butter can be renovated fairly well at home by merely working the butter, so as to wash it thoroughly, in a succession of bowls of cold water.

Oleomargarine or butterine has one advantage over butter, although it lacks the fine flavor. It is cheaper. It is made by churning other-than-butter fats with milk, or milk and butter, or milk and cream. Soft beef fat and neutral lard are often used and are sometimes mixed with cottonseed oil, cocoanut fat, or peanut oil. The butter makers have succeeded in having a tax of ten cents a pound placed on colored butterine, which makes the price of the product too high for it to compete with butter. The tax on uncolored oleomargarine is only a quarter of a cent a pound. As many people object to "colorless butter", fats which have a natural yellow color are used to give a colored product and yet avoid the excessive tax. Unfortunately the butterine made with the yellow fats does not seem to keep as well as the other.

Oleomargarine is a perfectly clean, wholesome food and should be more widely used than it is. Many people cannot distinguish the difference in flavor between it and butter, especially for any use except with bread, and the flavor is decidedly to be preferred to that of poor butter. Its use in Europe is much more extensive than in this country.

Buttermilk may contain not more than 0.2 per cent of fat, whereas normal milk contains about four per cent.

This makes it evident that buttermilk is less hearty than whole milk, although there is a common belief that the contrary is true. Such milk is valued not only for its flavor and perhaps for its increased digestibility, but also for the lactic acid bacteria present. Some authorities hold that these bacteria are carried into the small intestine and keep in check the growth of those bacteria which cause putrefaction. Much of the milk sold as buttermilk is really fermented skim milk containing perhaps only 0.1 per cent of fat. The greater digestibility of fermented milk seems to lie in the finely divided condition of the protein.

References

U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Farmers' Bulletin No. 384. " Whipped

Cream." "Farm Butter Making." Farmers' Bulletin No. 69. "Pasteurized Cream." Farmers' Bulletin No. 237. "Care of Cream on the Farm." Farmers' Bulletin No. 131. "Household Test for the Detection of Oleomargarine and Renovated Butter."

Questions

1. In what form is the fat in milk?

2. Why does fat sold as cream command a higher price than the same sold as butter?

3. What is the difference between creamery and dairy butter? What is "country butter"?

4. What different butters are sold in your stores and how do the prices vary at the present time? Compare with the cost of oleomargarine.

5. What are the variations in price of butter in your stores during the year? What causes the variation?

6. What is the average percentage composition of butter? of cream?

7. What is rancid butter?

8. When butter shows whitish streaks through it, what is the cause?

9. Why does whipped cream usually sour more quickly than ordinary cream?