A. Class Experiments.
1. Test milk, sour enough to have clabbered, with blue litmus paper. Cut a little of the milk with a knife and strain some of the whey through cheesecloth. Save both curd and whey for comparison.
2. Boil half a cup of the milk for three minutes. Strain through a cheesecloth and compare with the curd obtained in (1), (3), and (4). Reserve the whey.
3. Heat half a cup of the milk in a double boiler until it separates. Strain through a cheesecloth.
4. Pour half a cup of boiling water into half a cup of the sour milk. Take the temperature of the mixture. Strain the curd as before.
5. Compare the whey of unheated milk with the whey obtained by heating, and decide why heat is used in separating. Examine the texture of the curds and determine the effect of great heat. Which methods of separation should be used in making cottage cheese?
C. 1. To one fourth of a cup of milk, add half a teaspoon of rennin1solution. Boil, and set aside in a mold, until cool. 2. To one fourth of a cup of lukewarm milk, add half a teaspoon of rennin solution. When cool, compare with (1).
D. Junket Custard.
Make a recipe for a "Junket Custard", using chocolate, caramel, or vanilla, as flavoring, and prepare the custard.
The subject of food for children is an important one, for the digestions of little children are easily upset. Failure in obtaining a properly balanced diet means failure in proper development and growth.
Certain dishes are excluded from the children's bill-of-fare for various reasons. Coffee and tea should not be allowed, because they are nerve stimulants. Even cocoa as a regular drink is of questionable value, for it, too, contains a stimulating principle. Hot water with milk, or cereal coffee, will furnish hot drinks when called for, but all children should be encouraged to drink plenty of milk. A quart of milk a day for each child should be provided. This does not mean that such an amount must necessarily be drunk, because, when preferred, some of it may be served in soup, in white sauce, or in simple puddings. Secondly, foods containing much fat are excluded. This means pastry, fried foods, rich cake, and rich sauces, because they are difficult of digestion. For the same reason, pork, the fat of meat, and rich fish like salmon and mackerel, are forbidden. Spices, condiments, and strong acids such as vinegar, are also better omitted, as are raw foods containing much cellulose, as celery, cabbage, and radishes.
1 Rennin solution is made by dissolving a junket tablet in two tablespoons of water.
Almost any vegetable can be given, if it is prepared properly for the child. Little children are likely to swallow with insufficient chewing, so carrots, parsnips, turnips, onions, peas, beans, and corn may be difficult of digestion for them. But these same vegetables rubbed through a sieve and served as puree or a cream soup are excellent. The difficulty of chewing also makes veal too difficult of digestion. Bananas and cheese are so readily swallowed in lumps that the form in which these are furnished should be considered. The mixing of macaroni or rice with a little cheese affords a satisfactory way in which to serve the latter. Bananas as well as apples can be given, even to very little children, if they are scraped or baked. Children are especially susceptible to infection, so raw fruits must be clean. Berries bought in market are almost impossible to clean properly, and so are safer cooked. Figs and dates can be washed in hot water and sterilized in the oven.
Sugar may be given in moderate amounts, but it is much better not to stimulate the child's taste for it. Don't teach the baby to eat sugar. When given at all, as candy or otherwise, it should be at the end of a meal. The objections to its use on cereals is that the child should be led to eat only because he is hungry, and not because he likes the taste of a special dish. Sugar is much more apt to be irritating when taken on an empty stomach. Moreover, when eaten last, it is less apt to interfere with the appetite for other foods.
Many authorities say that children are better off without meat until they are eight or nine years old. There is no question that many children are given meat in too large amounts. As Miss Hunt points out, a child of even six to nine years of age would have sufficient protein in his daily diet from one egg, three glasses of milk, and what he will secure from the bread, cereals, and vegetables which the normal child can be depended upon to eat.
Children should be trained in eating habits just as much as in others. Many make the mistake of giving the little child only soft, mushy foods, and then wonder that he does not learn to chew. Crusts of bread and hard crackers are excellent educators for children beginning to eat.
Most mothers are in a hurry and feed the child too rapidly. The next spoonful is waiting at his lips before he has swallowed the first. So the children learn to eat too rapidly. The older child is too often forbidden to talk at the table, so even that interference with rapid eating is done away with. It is wise not to excuse children from the table when they have finished, but to require them to stay until the end of the meal. The child in a hurry to return to play will eat much more rapidly if he knows he can go when he has finished eating.
Children should be trained to like all kinds of food. If, as little children, they are fed vegetables in purees and soups, the difficulty which often occurs in teaching a child to like them will be avoided. Much can be accomplished by suggestion. If the older people do not eat all kinds of food, or if a child's dislikes are dwelt upon, difficulties will arise. The assumption that the flavor of a food is delicious and that the child will like it, will go far.
Water-drinking is another habit which may need attention. Food should not be washed down, nor should the water be iced; otherwise, water at meals is desirable, as is also water between meals. Most adults drink too little water.
Children should not eat whenever they are hungry, but at regular times. Lunches between meals should be provided regularly for little children. Care should be taken that the food be of such a nature as to be digested quickly, so as not to interfere with the following meal. It should be of such a character as to tempt only the hungry child to eat.
The amount of food required by children at various stages of their growth is shown in a table in the Appendix. The total amount is considered a minimum rather than an outside limit. A child with a natural, unspoiled appetite, fed simple, nourishing food, can safely be trusted not to overeat.
U. S. Dept, of Agriculture. Farmers' Bulletin No. 712. "School
Lunches." U. S. Bureau of Education. Bulletin No. 403. "The Daily Meals of School Children," by Caroline L. Hunt. Teachers' College Bulletin. "The Feeding of Young Children," by Mary Swartz Rose. Teachers' College Bulletin. "Food for School Boys and Girls," by Mary Swartz Rose.
1. Plan a series of meals for three days for a child of three, of six, and of ten.
2. Plan five school lunches for a child of ten.
3. Sum up the principal points concerned in the feeding of children.