A. Class Experiments. Emulsions.
1. Shake together a few drops of oil with a little vinegar or water. Examine. Let stand, and examine again. Is the emulsion permanent ?
2. (a) Shake together a few drops of oil with a little sodium hydroxide solution, and examine after letting it stand.
(b) Shake together a little oil with a little vinegar and a little egg yolk, and examine after letting it stand.
B. Make a Mayonnaise Dressing.
Use the following proportions:
1/2 tsp. mustard 1 3/4 sugar 1/4 tsp. salt 1 egg yolk
1/8 tsp. paprika 1 tsp. vinegar 1/2 tsp. lemon 1/2 c. oil 2
1 May be omitted entirely.
2 Olive oil or a good cottonseed oil may be used. A mixture of equal parts of the two is satisfactory.
After separating, the yolk of the egg may be rolled about on a piece of cheesecloth, held flat in the hand, to remove all of the white. This will give a thicker dressing. Have the mixing bowl and the ingredients cold. In very warm weather the bowl may be surrounded with cracked ice. Beat the yolk until it is thick and creamy. Add the dry ingredients, and, beating constantly, the other ingredients in one of the two following ways:
1. Add the oil slowly, at first drop by drop, until a good emulsion is formed. Then add the lemon and vinegar alternately with the oil. Beat vigorously before each addition.
2. Add the vinegar and lemon to the beaten egg; then, add the oil, slowly. It should not be necessary to add it drop by drop. Beat vigorously between each addition.
If the oil separates out, beat another yolk, and add the separated mixture slowly, beating vigorously.
The mayonnaise may be mixed with whipped cream, or with stiffly beaten white of egg, immediately before serving.
C. Make Boiled Dressing.
2 tsp. sugar 1 tsp. salt 1 tsp. flour 1/4 tsp. mustard 1
1/8 tsp. paprika
Mix the dry ingredients and add the vinegar. Beat the egg slightly and add the milk. Combine the two. Which should be poured into the other? Add the butter. Cook as boiled custard.
1 May be omitted.
If uncertain of the freshness of the milk, make without the vinegar and cool the mixture before adding the acid.
1. Apple and date with boiled dressing.
2. Orange, pineapple, and grape, with mayonnaise.
3. Apple, celery, and nut, with either dressing.
4. Cabbage with boiled dressing.
5. String beans with either dressing.
6. Banana with boiled dressing, sprinkled with nuts.
7. Potato salad with either dressing.
Arrangements in the Kitchen and Dining Room
The older idea of a kitchen is quite different from our modern ideal. Originally the kitchen was a living room in which the preparation of food was carried on as one of many industries. Therefore, when the room was in order, everything pertaining to cooking was, as far as possible, put out of sight. Now, the kitchen is a workshop for the preparation of food and need be adapted only for that use, and may show frankly the use for which it is intended.
If one pictures the going to and fro which is necessary in the preparation of a meal, the advantage of a small kitchen is at once obvious. The stove, sink, and table, to save both time and steps, must be near each other. Their relative positions, also, make a considerable difference in the steps which have to be taken. In the preparation of a meal, food which is ready to go to the dining room is taken from the stove, placed in serving dishes, and carried into the other room. Therefore, a serving table should stand between the stove and the door into the dining room. This need not be a large table; it may be only a shelf, even a folding shelf. It may very conveniently be covered with galvanized iron or zinc, because then hot dishes and kettles can freely be set on it.
On the other hand, a table on which food is prepared for cooking should stand next to the stove and near the storage cupboard and ice-box. These need not necessarily be in one straight line. Note the accompanying illustrations (floor plans of kitchens).
For washing dishes, the drain boards and china closet should be near the sink. But, obviously, water will also be needed in mixing food, and in cooking it. The best way, then, to bring the sink near all these is to place it opposite the stove.
This sort of arrangement of work is called "routing" it. Unfortunately the positions of the stove, sink, and closets are often determined by the architect, with little or no regard to the convenience of the worker. But thought and ingenuity in putting up shelves and cupboards can do much in transforming an inconvenient kitchen into at least a more convenient one.
Nor are these larger arrangements the only ones to be thought about. Quite as much saving of time can be made by the proper placing of utensils and supplies. Think where any given article is used most and keep it near that place. For example, soap, scouring powder, silver polish, as well as the dishpan, dish-mop, and the like are all used in the sink. Store them so that they are within immediate reach. Some may hang from the wall behind the sink, or from the edge of a small shelf placed above and a little to one side of the sink. Compare the convenience of this with the practice, for example, of carrying the dishpan, often every time it is used, across the kitchen and standing it in a pantry closet.
Certain supplies should be kept near the stove, as well
From '• You and Your Kitchen," by Mrs. Christine Freauertck..
Floor Plan of a Poorly-arranged Kitchen as spoons and other utensils to be used there. Of course, nothing which is not used frequently should be stored in the kitchen. Other things are better put away in cupboards or in the pantry. If the kitchen is dusty, as when a coal range is used, open shelves may be replaced by cupboards, or by curtained shelves protected by a window shade which will roll up. Narrow shelves with articles only one row deep are much more convenient than wider
A. Steps taken in the preparation of a meal. B. Steps taken in clearing away.
From " You and Your Kitchen,"by Mrs. Christine Frederick..
Floor Plan of the Same Kitchen, Properly Arranged shelves where the articles in front must be moved aside to give access to those behind. Plan never to hang one article over another on the same hook.
Apply these same principles to the arrangements of the dining room. Evidently salt and pepper shakers, sugar bowls, napkins in use, and other articles used only at the table should be stored as near it as possible. But what about serving dishes? If these are kept in the dining room, they must be taken to the kitchen, filled, brought back, used, carried out, washed, and brought back again for storage, only to be carried out to the kitchen again before using. This is evidently not efficiency.
Another Well-arranged Kitchen.
Planning of this sort is really very useful. Time studies are often made to determine which is the quickest way of carrying on a given process, or to see how much time is saved by a better arrangement. Noting the exact time it takes to do a given task by one method, and then the exact time necessary in another way, shows the difference in the two much more accurately than a mere impression of the difference. Surely, the ideal is not to spend one's whole time doing housework, but to do it as quickly and efficiently as possible, so that one may have time for the larger things of life.
Various cook books, on salads.
"The Efficient Kitchen," by Georgie Boynton Child.
"The New Housekeeping," by Christine Frederick.
1. Into what two general classes would you divide salads?
2. Which kind of salads would it be appropriate to include in a hearty-dinner menu ?
3. What are the chief points to consider in judging a salad ?
4. What ways do you recommend for caring for celery which must be kept for a day or two ?
5. Why is it worth while to learn to like salads ?