1/2 c, steamed rice 1/2 c. milk
1 tbsp. sugar 1/4 tsp. salt
2 tbsp. raisins
Scald the milk before using it. Beat the egg with salt, add sugar, and pour the scalded milk over the mixture. Put into a buttered baking dish with rice and raisins. The raisins may be omitted and a little grated rind of a lemon used; or cinnamon, ginger, or nutmeg. Molasses or maple syrup may be substituted for the sugar. Or:
Use one tablespoon of Indian meal to one cup of milk and other ingredients in proportion.
5 c. scalded milk 1/3 c. Indian meal
1/2 c. molasses 1 tsp. salt
1 tsp. ginger
Pour the hot milk over the meal, and cook twenty minutes in a double boiler. Add the other ingredients, and bake very slowly in a buttered dish.
B. Crisped Cereals.
Examine and taste a "ready-to-eat" cereal as it is purchased. Place a little of it in a pan and put it for a moment in an oven; compare with the portion not heated.
C. Cost of Breakfast Foods.
Take packages of well-known cereals. Determine how much of each must be used for one serving, then how many servings each package will give. Calculate the cost of a serving of each, and fill in the following table.
Name of Cereal
Cost of Package
Amount of One Serving
Number of Servings
Cellulose is the fiber which makes up part of the frame-work of vegetable foods. It has the same chemical composition as starch, but is much less soluble, and human food contains only a small percentage of it. It is a form of carbohydrate which is of less importance to mankind than to animals. While animals have ferments in the digestive tract which are capable of digesting cellulose, none with this power are secreted by man. Nevertheless, the scientists find that man digests some cellulose. This is one of the beneficial acts of bacteria present in the intestines. These bacteria are capable of acting on tender cellulose and changing it, perhaps into sugars and organic acids, in which forms it can be absorbed and burned as fuel to furnish the body with heat and muscular energy. Undoubtedly some of the breaking down of the cellulose proceeds further than this, and hydrogen and other gases are produced which have no nutritive value.
But not all forms of cellulose are easily enough broken down to have such changes occur. Cotton is a form of cellulose which would be absolutely without nutritive value. Such tender cellulose as is found in the cell walls of seeds like the cereals, and in vegetables, especially when young, is more capable of being digested. Still, it is probable that the less cellulose there is present in a vegetable food, the more digestible it is. This is probably the reason that rice is so easily digested, for it contains less cellulose than the other grains.
Boiling in water does not change real cellulose at all, just as cotton clothes are not changed by boiling. But the cellulose cell walls of a plant are stiffened with other related substances; for one, with the pectose which changes to pectin. Cooking dissolves out some of these intercellular substances and also hydrates the starch, and so cooked vegetables are softened. Then, as has already been explained, by thorough cooking the cellulose walls may be ruptured by the swelling of the starch grains within the cells and so the contents exposed without its being necessary first to digest the cell walls.
Some authorities believe that inert particles like cellulose are sufficiently rough to stimulate the intestines to peristaltic action, that is, to movements which hasten the passage of food through the intestines and which are an aid in combating constipation. But, since foods are not laxative in proportion to the amount of cellulose they contain, others believe this action is due rather to the stimulus of certain salts which occur largely in the husks of the cereal; and that it is due to the presence of these salts and not to the larger amount of cellulose in them that such articles of food as cracked wheat and graham bread are more laxative than those cereals which have undergone more extensive manufacturing processes.