Rolls Graham And Oatmeal Bread

A. Class Work. Parker House Rolls.

Make Parker House rolls by the long process method of making bread.


2 c. scalded milk

3 tbsp. butter 2 tbsp. sugar

1 1/2 tsp. salt

1 yeast cake

3 c. flour to make sponge

About 3 c. flour to make dough

When ready to form rolls, divide the dough into small pieces and shape into Parker House rolls, tea biscuits, finger rolls, cinnamon rolls, and the like. See cook books for directions.

B. Make Graham or Oatmeal Bread. Follow the short process of making bread. Graham Bread.

1 c. liquid

1/2 c. milk

1/2 c. water (3 tbsp. may be potato water)

1 yeast cake (?)1 1 1/4 c. white flour 1 3/4 c. graham flour

1 tsp. salt

2 tbsp. brown sugar, or 1/4 c. molasses

Oatmeal Bread

Pour two cups of boiling water over one cup of rolled oats.

Add 4 tbsp. brown sugar, or 1/2 c. molasses

2 tbsp. fat

1 tsp. salt

1 yeast cake (?)1

Flour to make a stiff dough, about 4 1/2 c.


When bread has risen sufficiently, it is placed in a hot oven at about 450° F. Baking the dough accomplishes a number of things. It kills the yeast plants so that fermentation stops; it also kills any bacteria which may be present; it expands the carbon dioxide gas so that the loaf is larger after than before baking; it vaporizes the alcohol and drives it off; it hardens the gluten so that the bread, once risen, will keep its shape and will not fall when it cools; and, finally, it causes the starch on the inside of the loaf to take up water and become hydrated, while it dextrinizes some of the starch in the crust.

As these are all essential processes, it is important to be sure that the bread is so thoroughly baked as to effect all these results. In bread which is insufficiently baked all the organisms which are present may not be killed, and it may grow sour as it is kept. Bread is sufficiently baked when tapping the top and bottom of the loaf produces hollow sounds. Since long baking is so desirable, many people lower the heat after the bread is well baked, and leave the loaves in the oven for a long time.

1 Amount depends on time to be given to rising.

Composition of Bread and other Cereal Products

Composition of Bread and other Cereal Products.

Bread-making is, perhaps, one of the most common subjects for cooking contests because, if one is to count on always turning out excellent results, considerable skill is required, as well as knowledge of the reasons for all the steps. The requirements for a perfect loaf are shown by the score cards used in judging such contests. The following is the one given in the U. S. Experiment Station Bulletin No. 225.

Score Card For Judging Bread

Thoroughness of baking ...........

Color (1) Shade, golden brown.........

(2) Evenness.............

Shape of loaves, oblong, 1 to 2 lbs.........

Sweetness, no sourness after thorough mastication ............

Flavor, slightly milky............

Quality of crumb, moist but not wet.......

Evenness of crumb................

Firmness of crumb.............

Color of crumb, cream rather than pearl white .................


20 6 6 8

15 8 3 4

To obtain the best results in baking, the loaves should be single and about 4 inches X 4 1/2 inches X 9 inches in size.

Freshly baked bread is indigestible, because of the difficulty of mastication. Such bread tends to roll up into a pasty mass instead of breaking up as a cracker does when it is chewed.

Bread and Rolls made with one Yeast Cake

Bread and Rolls made with one Yeast Cake.

Graham Bread made without Kneading

Graham Bread made without Kneading.

Loaf of Bread and Parker House Rolls

Loaf of Bread and Parker House Rolls.

From "Cooking for Two," by Janet McKenzie Hill.

Bakers' bread is usually much lighter than home-made bread, a slice of given dimensions weighing about half as much as a slice of home-made bread of the same size. It is, of course, slice for slice, just about half as nutritious, and we usually eat more of the bakers' bread to satisfy our appetites. This does not condemn bakers' bread as a food, but the fact remains that this must be taken into consideration in comparing the cost of purchased with that of home-made bread. The demand for the ready-made product is becoming so great that usually a fairly well-made bread can be purchased almost anywhere and the average quality is probably better than in the average home-made product, for many housewives make bread much below the standard.

Since yeast leaves no such questionable residues in the bread as baking powder does, the constant use of yeast bread is supposed to be preferable to that of baking-powder breads, but the bad effects of the too continued use of the latter may be partly the result of the habit of eating such breads hot instead of cold.


1. When would you prefer to make a long-process bread?

2. Why should bread not be put away while it is still warm?

3. Why is bread stored in a bread-box?

4. Why should cake and bread be kept in separate boxes?

5. Compare the weight and the price of home-made and bakers' loaves of bread.

6. Compare the cost per loaf, if short-process bread is set over night, or is made in two hours.

7. Compare the cost of making bread with compressed yeast set over night, and with dried yeast used in long-process bread.

8. What is "potato yeast"? How is it made and used?

9. How would you make whole wheat bread? rye bread?

10. Why is some white flour used in making such breads as graham, rye, and oatmeal?