Oatmeal Cookies

A. Prepare Oatmeal Cookies. Use one-eighth of the recipe:

1/2 c. sugar

1/2 tbsp. melted butter l egg

1/4 tsp. salt 1 tsp. vanilla 1 c. rolled oats

1 tsp. baking powder

Mix the dry ingredients and add the egg beaten slightly and the melted butter. Drop from a teaspoon on a buttered tin. Bake from five to seven minutes in a slow oven (365° P.).

B. Class Experiments. Making Cocoa.

1. Try mixing one teaspoon of cocoa with cold water.

2. Try mixing one teaspoon of cocoa with boiling water.

3. Try mixing one teaspoon of cocoa slowly with boiling water.

4. Try mixing one teaspoon of cocoa with one-half tea-spoon of sugar, then add boiling water.

Make Cocoa. Mix as seems best from the results of B. Use:

1 tsp. cocoa 1/2 tsp. sugar

1/4 c. water 1/4 c. milk

A few grains of salt

A few drops of vanilla, if desired

Mix cocoa, salt, sugar, and water, and boil one minute. Add milk and boil until it begins to froth. Remove at once. Let half of this stand a few moments. Beat the other half with an egg-beater or a wire whisk until it foams. What is the advantage of "milling" (beating)?

C. Prepare Chocolate.

Use the same proportions as for cocoa, but use a weight of chocolate equal to the weight of the teaspoon of cocoa. Melt the chocolate with sugar in a saucepan over hot water, add boiling water slowly, stirring until smooth. Then boil one minute, add milk, and proceed as in making cocoa. Serve with cookies.

When would it be better in making cocoa and chocolate to scald the milk first?

Cocoa And Chocolate

The cocoa tree, a native of tropical American countries, produces a pod from seven to ten inches long, and shaped somewhat like a thick cucumber. In the pod are found from twenty to forty beans from which chocolate and cocoa are manufactured. The pods are harvested twice a year, the beans being freed from the pod and allowed to ferment. This fermentation is carried on very carefully, for upon it depends the development of the flavor. Drying in the air changes the color of the bean from white to red. Roasting changes the beans further and loosens the husk, which is removed and sold as cocoa-shells, to be boiled with water for a beverage. The part of the bean under the husk is called the nib. This is sometimes crushed and put on the market as cracked cocoa, but more often is ground and molded into a cake which is known as bitter or cooking chocolate; or, mixed with sugar, as sweet chocolate. The latter is often flavored, usually with vanilla.

Cocoa is made from chocolate by the removal of part of the fat, approximately fifty per cent. The fat, in American manufacture, is merely pressed out and, as cocoa butter, forms a valuable trade product. Dutch manufacturers treat the chocolate with alkali in the process of making cocoa and add some spice, usually cinnamon, as well as vanilla. So-called "soluble cocoas" are merely those which are finely ground and so remain in suspension a longer time.

Cocoa, as a beverage, differs from tea and coffee in being fairly nutritious. As larger amounts of milk or cream are usually used in its preparation, this, too, increases the food value. Cocoa contains tannin, but in a quite different form from that found in tea, and its stimulating ingredient, theobromin, although like caffein in its effects, is much milder. However, there is something of a reaction against the too free use of chocolate and cocoa, even in cases when the large amount of fat in chocolate does not cause trouble. Doctors caution some invalids and children against the use of chocolate. Many who do not feel stimulated by it notice the diuretic effect. Still, chocolate is probably much to be preferred to tea and coffee as a beverage, particularly as we are not likely to demand it with the same frequency.

Cocoa Pod and Beans

Cocoa Pod and Beans.