The shank of veal is used for soups. The best end of loin is used for roasts and chops. The scrag end of neck is used for boiling. The breast of veal is used for stew. The flank is also used for stew. The chump end of loin is used for roasts. The fillet is used for roasts and steaks. The neck is used for broth.
The ham is generally pickled and smoked, though it is sometimes cut into pork steak when fresh. The shoulder may be either used as steak, cured as ham, or it may be ground into sausage meat. The choicest meat is obtained from the loin. The loin is used as a roast or is cut into pork chops. Pork chops are cut parallel to the ribs and should be three-eighths to one-half an inch thick.
Side of Pork - Names of Cuts
The spare rib is considered a very choice portion when broiled in the oven or when stuffed and roasted. The back strip of side meat is sometimes made into salt pork, but, as it is nearly clear fat, it is best to try it up into lard. The middle strip makes a second-class quality of bacon or salt pork, but the third or lower strip is considered best for this purpose, as it contains a larger proportion of lean meat.
The loin, which is usually considered the choicest cut of mutton, may be used either for an oven roast or for mutton chops. When used as an oven roast, it is roasted without any further cutting, except to crack the joints in the backbone with a cleaver, to facilitate carving at the table. Chops are cut from this joint in slices parallel to the line A. K. They should be cut from one-half to three-fourths of an inch thick. The rack is considered second in quality and is usually cut into chops for broiling or pan broiling or braising.
The chops should be cut one inch thick, leaving one rib in each chop. They should be cut parallel with the ribs and cut off at the block with a cleaver. The leg, without further subdividing than to remove the tail and scraggy parts is used for oven roasts or for boiling. The shoulder should have the joints in the ribs cracked, and the ribs themselves broken on the inside at the middle. It may then be used for an oven roast if the animal is a young one, otherwise it should be used for boiling. The neck makes choice mutton broth, and the breast and flank may be used in the same way, or they may all be used for stews.
Side of Mutton - Names of Cuts
The cuts of lamb are very similar to those of mutton, though in some cases they have different names. The cuts of lamb are: Neck, shoulder, chuck, breast, saddle and leg. The saddle includes the loin and a portion of that part known in mutton as rack, and extends from the aitch bone nearly to the chuck (sixth or seventh rib). The chuck begins about the fourth rib and extends to the saddle.
The neck and all trimmings are used for broth. The breast of lamb is usually braised or similarly prepared. The saddle is used for an oven roast or cut into chops. The chops from the rib portion are called rib chops or French chops, and those from the loin are called loin chops. Lamb chops are used for broiling.
The rib piece is sometimes made into a roast known as crown of lamb.
The leg of lamb is used for an oven roast. The shoulder is used in the same way as the leg, though it makes a much poorer roast.
To every one hundred pounds of beef, weigh out eight pounds of ground rock salt if it can be had; if not, common salt may be used. Cover the bottom of the barrel with a layer of salt a quarter of an inch deep and then pack in a layer of meat as compactly as possible, leaving it level on top. Cover this with a layer of salt and a layer of meat until all is used, proportioning the layers so that the eight pounds of salt will be used up at the same time that the hundred pounds of meat is all in. Allow the meat to stand in the salt over night. The next day dissolve two ounces of saltpetre, four ounces of salera-tus and four pounds of sugar in a little warm water and turn it over the meat. Add cold water until the meat is covered. Put a loose cover or board over the meat and weight it down to keep the meat entirely under the brine. Keep in a cool, dry cellar. If, at any time, the brine becomes slimy or ropy it should be turned off, the meat should be washed and a new brine made.