1. Jam may be made from fruit not perfect enough to can, from fruit slightly overripe, and from small pieces left after canning.

2. Jam may be cooked in a fireless cooker. This saves watching and stirring.

3. Jelly, though not of the finest grade, may be made from the cores and parings from apples and quinces cut up for canning.

4. In jelly-making, when much water has to be added to the fruit, the juice must be boiled down to restore its natural composition. Long boiling may destroy the jellying property of the pectin. Therefore use as little water as possible, and avoid overcooking.

5. If after cooking the usual length of time for the fruit in use, the sweetened juice will not jelly, re-measure it, and add to it an equal quantity of juice. Cook again, and test as usual.

Brief Reference List

For further development of topics treated in this section see: -

Olsen : Pure foods. Ch. 13.

Goldthwaite : Principles of jelly-making. (University of Illinois bulletin, v. 11, no. 31, March 30, 1914.)

Snell: Household chemistry. P. 180, Pectin.

Norris : Organic chemistry. Pp. 320-327, Pectin.

Harris : Jellies, preserves, and marmalades. Florida State College for Women. Dept. of Home Economics. Extension bulletin No. 3.