1. A solid dissolved in water will, in most cases, be found at the bottom of the vessel after the water has evaporated or boiled away.

1 Exception

Water expands just before it freezes; hence the bursting of pipes.

2. Boiling expels air from water, making it taste "flat." Boiled water should be poured back and forth several times from one pitcher to another, or shaken in a large bottle, to restore its flavor.

3. Temporarily hard water may be made soft by boiling.

4. Impure water may be made safe for use by boiling.

5. Since, by ordinary means, water cannot be made hotter after it begins to boil, fuel is wasted in keeping up more fire than is required just to keep the water at the boiling-point.

6. By covering the vessel some of the steam is condensed, and heat is saved.

Water In Relation To Health

Drinking freely of pure water makes for health. The water we drink or take in as part of our food aids digestion, conveys nourishment to all parts of the body, removes waste, and in other ways keeps the body in order. Large quantities of cold water should not be drunk when one is overheated; nor should water or any other liquid be used to wash down half-chewed food.

But remember to take a drink of water several times a day.


Good ice is clear and clean. Snow-ice looks white and melts too fast. Artificial ice is purest, because it is made from distilled water. The best way to cool drinking-water is to put ice around it, not in it.

Brief Reference List

For further development of topics treated in this section see:-

Morgan and Lyman : Chemistry. Pp. 66-74.

Snell: Elementary household chemistry. Ch. 22, Hard water. Other scattered passages. Elliott : Household hygiene. Dodd : Chemistry of the household.

Thorpe : Dictionary of applied chemistry. Ch. 5, p. 684. Buchanan : Household bacteriology. Ch. 40, Water contamination. Conn : Bacteria, yeasts, and molds in the home.