To do this right, three things are essential: Good materials, extreme cleanliness, perfect accuracy. Proper utensils help to insure cleanliness and accuracy.

List of utensils needed : -

8 or 10 feeding-bottles.

Corks, preferably rubber, one for each bottle, or Absorbent cotton. Bottle-brush to clean bottles.

Wire bottle-rack to hold bottles. (If you have a pasteurizer-rack no other is needed.)

Several rubber nipples.

Covered jar or bowl to keep nipples in.

Enamelled or earthen pitcher in which to mix food.

New enamelled saucepan or double boiler for cooking gruel.

Glass jar to keep gruel in.

Measuring-glass, also called a graduate.

Tablespoon and knife for measuring.

Tall cup or quart measure for heating milk.

If cream or top-milk is to be removed, a cream-dipper will be needed.

Care Of Utensils

The utensils used in preparing a baby's food should not be used for anything else. Keep them all together and take care of them yourself. Wash them as soon as you are done with them. Rinse them all over in boiling water. Do not wipe them. Put them away out of the dust where no one will touch them. Rinse them again in hot water just before using them.

Bottles

Eight-ounce bottles are most frequently used. If the baby takes more than eight ounces at one feeding, use twelve-ounce bottles. Bottles d and e in Plate XV are well-shaped. Their sloping shape makes them easier to clean than bottles a and b, which have a pronounced shoulder. The straight bottle, c, is the easiest of any to clean, but both the bottle and large nipple to fit it cost more than other kinds. It is not necessary except for a baby who refuses any nipple but the large one.

Get bottles on which the ounces are marked. If one must economize, an accurately-marked bottle may be used for measuring instead of a measuring-glass. Keep on hand at least one extra bottle so that you will not be short if one is broken.

Care Of Feeding-Bottles

Clean new bottles thoroughly with soap, water, and bottle-brush. Put them into cold water, let it come to the boiling-point and boil for fifteen minutes. Let the bottles cool in the water. This not only sterilizes them (see directions for sterilizing fruit-jars), but makes them less likely to break. As soon as a feeding-bottle has been used, remove the nipple and throw away any milk left in the bottle. Either wash it at once or fill it with cold water and set it in the rack. Clean all bottles thoroughly with soap, water, and brush, before using them again. Just before refilling them, sterilize them in boiling water. Remove bottles from water, plug them with sterile cotton, and let them cool. Or, sterilize them in a covered kettle, and let them cool in the water, not removing cover or bottles till the bottles are to be refilled. Never fill bottles while they are hot.1

Plate XV.

Babies' Feeding Bottles, and Utensils used in preparing Modified Milk.

Babies' Feeding Bottles, and Utensils used in preparing Modified Milk.

Bottles a and b. Large nipple funnel.

Nipples. Bottles c, d, and e. Graduate.

Glass to hold nipples. Rubber stoppers. Jar for gruel.

Bottle cleaner. Cream dipper.

Cotton must be kept in a tightly covered box or jar. Buy sterilized cotton and keep it in a covered box or can. It may be re-sterilized at home if necessary, by baking it in the oven for one hour, wrapped in cheese-cloth.

Nipples

Select black nipples which do not collapse easily. It is best to buy those without a hole. A hole of the size desired can be made with a red-hot needle. It should allow the milk to drop steadily, but not run in a stream, when the bottle is inverted.

Care Of Nipples

Boil new nipples for five minutes. As soon as a feeding-bottle has been used, remove the nipple and wash it under the cold-water faucet, turning it inside out to wash the inside. See that no speck of milk clings to the rim. The nipple may then be dropped into a bowl of boric acid solution kept for the purpose. If preferred, all the nipples in use may be boiled daily, wrapped in a sterilized cloth, and put in a covered jar. They should be so wrapped that one nipple can be taken out without touching or exposing the rest. Boiling the nipples tends to soften them and is unnecessary if boric acid is used.

To make boric acid solution dissolve in one cupful of boiling hot water a heaping teaspoonful of boric acid, and let it cool. It will not dissolve in cold water. Boric acid 1 As the food is not to be sterilized, it must be kept cold. Why?

is a preservative. What then is its effect on microorganisms? (See ways of preserving food, p. 296.) Wash and boil corks daily.