There are male or pollen-bearing and female or berry-bearing plants of this species. The male kind was introduced from Japan by Robert Fortune in 1850, but the female was introduced as early as 1783. There are now many varieties, differing chiefly in the mottling and variegation of the leaves - some having wholly green foliage. By raising the plants from seeds still further variations are possible. A great trade is done in Aucubas, and thousands are sold annually in all stages of growth, from 9 in. to 3 ft. high, from the open, and also in pots. Female plants are largely grown in 5-in. pots for winter decoration. When in bloom they are hand fertilized with pollen collected from the male plants. In this way a good crop of crimson berries are secured; but there is a yellow-fruited variety called luteocarpa. The plants are usually grown under glass for this purpose. Propagation is chiefly by cuttings in the open air, or in frames. Large pieces inserted in a hotbed of coconut fibre or leaf mould root readily, and in this way bushy plants are now quickly secured. Layering in the open air is also adopted, and seeds should be sown in warmth.