This section is from the book "The Gardener's Monthly And Horticulturist V26", by Thomas Meehan. See also: Four-Season Harvest: Organic Vegetables from Your Home Garden All Year Long.
A correspondent of the N. Y. Evening Post, says of rose culture near New York: "The hybrid perpetuals or' French fancy roses,' as they are sometimes termed, require a somewhat different treatment to 'tea' or monthly roses. They are what is called deciduous - that is, they lose their leaves in autumn, and consequently require what gardeners term 'a rest.' They cannot be forced into bloom until they have been kept cold for three or four months. They lose their leaves in November, and should not be put into the greenhouse until January or February, for if this be attempted before that time they will die outright, or at best fail to flower; so it is very important in making selections to plant a rose-house not to mix the two classes. A rose so well known as the General Jacqueminot, being so popular, is often ordered by amateurs in a collection to force with tea roses; but it can never give satisfactory results.
"The best known kinds of this hybrid perpetual class are here named in the order of their popularity in New York: Baroness Rothschild, a delicately tinted pink rose; Mabel Morrison, a ' paper-white' rose; Magna Charta, a rich pink, with buds always clustering close to the blossom; Countess of Oxford, a rosy, soft carmine; Anna de Dies-bach, a deep pink, and General Jacqueminot, the velvet crimson.
"Another class, recently introduced, known as ' hybrid teas,' of which La .France is a type, embraces nearly all the shades known in the rose, and has the valuable quality of continuous blossoming. Of these, the bright rose-colored and delicately perfumed Nancy Lee is one of the most charming; the dark crimson Duke of Connaught, the full-petaled and poire white Coquette des Alpes, and the rich crimson Wm. Francis Bennett are the best varieties. This last kind is that for which £3,750 were paid for the stock, and which will be sold next May for the first time at two dollars a plant, three inches high. This rose was purchased by an American florist from Bennett of London two years ago, each binding himself not to sell a plant of it for four years; but it was found to be an ill-judged arrangement, as the flowers could not be sold with the stems, and consequently were not wanted. If sold with the stems they could be used for cuttings, and this precious new variety would then have been distributed in spite of the owners' restrictions.
For this reason the embargo was broken, and the plant will be issued in 1885 and be the novelty of the season, as the new tea rose Sunset was last year".
Usually what writers in daily papers say about horticultural topics is of the silliest character. But a remarkably intelligently written paper on Roses recently appeared in the New York Evening Post, from which we take the following, and which we are sure will be appreciated by our readers:
"Winter is yet some months distant, but the necessary preparation for winter flower-buds must be made within the next thirty days, or results will be unsatisfactory. Every year improvements are put in practice in greenhouse operations; by experiments discoveries are made which save labor and expense, and by which better stock is grown. The cultivation of roses has become so extensive in districts around this city that it would be remarkable if improvements in rose culture did not go hand in hand with the large increase of labor in this direction. By the florists roses are nearly altogether grown for winter buds on shallow benches in the greenhouse. Latterly it has been found that the depth of soil on these benches can be reduced to even less than four inches with the best results. Formerly eight and even twelve inches' depth was used, causing great labor and expense. This soil, which is composed of about equal parts of rotted sod and rotted stable manure, is placed on these benches, which are made so as to leave a space of half-an-inch between the boards, to admit of perfect drainage.
The distance apart between the plants should be from twelve to fifteen inches, according to their size.
"The greenhouse best suited for rose-growing is what is known as a 'two-thirds span,' that is, one-third sloping to the north and two-thirds to the south, the roof at an angle of about forty degrees. The top of the benches wherein the roses are planted should in no case be less than two feet from the glass. The plants used are usually about eighteen inches in height, and are grown in five or six-inch pots. The time of planting is any time during the month of August; and the sooner now, the better.
"The variety of monthly roses best adapted for winter is limited. A great mistake is frequently made by the inexperienced in using too many kinds. The roses most likely to be valuable the coming winter are here named in the order of their excellence: Sunset, a rich orange color, shaded with crimson, possessing the true 'tea fragrance;' Perle des Jardins, deep yellow; Niphetos, large pure white; Catherine Mermet, a shell pink; Marshal Robert, pale canary yellow; Southern Belle, a real blush rose; Souvenir d' Ami. delicate pink; Bon Silene, very deep pink, with delightful fragrance; Mde. Cusin, silvery salmon tinted; and Douglas, a dark crimson. There are hundreds of others offered by growers, but when the limit of this list is passed the results will not be so satisfactory. Nearly all the colors known in roses are here represented.
"Besides growing roses on the benches lor winter they are also extensively grown in pots. For house culture or for those having only small greenhouses and a mixed variety of plants, the pot-growing plan is the best. A rose grown in six-inch pots, when properly treated, will give about two dozen good buds during the winter months, some more, some less, according to kinds. Amateurs frequently have more difficulty in making roses do well in winter than other plants. This is mainly caused by the too common mistake of keeping the temperature too high; it should range at night from fifty-five to sixty-five degrees-sixty being the best mean temperature - and during the day from ten to fifteen degrees higher.
"The extent to which roses are being grown this season in the vicinity of the metropolis, both by private gentlemen for their own use and by florists for commercial purposes, is something extraordinary. There are few persons who keep fully appointed greenhouses that have not now a rose-house added, and it is believed that not less than two hundred thousand dollars will be expended this summer in new glass-houses by the florists of this locality alone. A new greenhouse on Jersey City heights was seen yesterday, over three hundred feet long and twenty feet wide, erected exclusively to grow the new tea rose 'Sunset.' This house, which is mainly of glass and iron, will cost when completed six thousand dollars".