This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
A VERY curious yet simple structure is illustrated in these two engravings. Set firmly in the ground a rustic pole of say ten feet high, and on the top of this place a tasteful bird-cage. Around the base of this pole remove the natural soil so as to form a circular area some twenty feet in diameter, and to the depth of ten or twelve inches. This excavation is filled to the level of the surface of the soil around it with broken stones or brickbats, and these covered neatly and graded with gravel. This forms a good garden floor, out of which lead paths in opposite directions. Around this circular area are prepared eight fertile borders, in which eight varieties of strong growing, running vines are planted, and a post firmly set by the side of each plant. These posts project but a few inches above the surface of the ground, and to them are attached eight chains, which extend up and are attached to a hoop made of three-quarter inch gas-pipe, twenty feet in diameter, which is suspended on eight similar chains attached to the pole beneath the cage.
Wires are then woven into the umbrella-shaped top, formirg a good support for the vines, which are trained up the chains and over the head, on which the different varieties of foliage and flowers are mingled and entangled, forming a mammoth bouquet, which perfectly shades the graveled space beneath. The chains leading from the ground to the head have a little slack, thus allowing the whole head to wave or vibrate in the breeze, giving it a very pretty effect.
As it is difficult to get runners of the choice flowered varieties to cover the structure fully for two or more years, hops can be planted on one side of each of the borders, and trained up the chains and over the head, covering it perfectly the first year. Strong growing roses may be also used in place of the running vines.