This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
Plants that have completed growth, may be now taken out of the house. It is a prevalent custom to set the plants out at a stated period, without reference to their condition; a practice which deprives those who follow it from having a good crop of flowers at the expected time. This is one reason why we see so many starved-looking and flower-less camellias. Most plants make their growth immediately after flowering, and, during that process, they require their maximum proportion of humidity and warmth. The consequence of exposing them, in this tender condition, to an atmosphere and temperature so completely opposite, is so apparent, even to a novice, that a secluded, shady locality, either in the shade or under the branches of trees, is chosen to prevent total destruction of the young and tender growths. Before removing plants, therefore, to the open air, attention must be directed to their fitness; the wood must be approaching to maturity, and a degree of hardiness should be induced by a gradual withdrawal of water to the roots. A situation where they will have a full exposure to air and sun, will then be the most favorable towards a completion of wood growth and development of flower buds.
The pots should also be placed on boards, or other impervious material, in order to prevent rooting through the bottom of the pots, and if they are covered with ashes, tan bark, sawdust, etc., an unnatural extraction of water from the roots, by evaporation through the porous substance of the pots, will be prevented.
Towards the end of the month, pelargoniums should be pruned close down, and cuttings put in to root; a week's exposure to the sun will harden the wood, and cause the plants to break afresh, much stronger than when pruned in a soft and succulent state. Cuttings may be planted under the shade of a wall or hedge.
Calceolaria seed should be sown this month, in order to have good plants before winter. Prepare a well-drained pot of light, sandy soil, press the surface level and sow the seed, but do not cover it. Cover with a pane of glass, and set in a shaded part out doors. To obviate disturbing the seed by surface watering, insert the pot into another, three or four inches larger, fill the space between the two with moss, and keep it always wet. The soil will absorb sufficient moisture for germination.
Cinneraria, and Chinese primrose seed, should also be sown, and treated as above.
Chrysanthemums in pots should be closely topped, to keep them bushy, and prevent early flowering, so that they may be available for the greenhouse and conservatory in early winter. Two or three cuttings, placed in small pots, will form roots, and flower well if not subjected to further pinchings.
The gayety of the house will still be kept up with fuchsias, gesneras, gloxinias, and those beautiful and indispensable summer flowers, the achemenes. Endeavor to keep the atmosphere humid, by a liberal application of water ever the floor, staging, etc. Water such plants as require it, individually, early in the morning; shade as the day advances, and use the syringe freely over the foliage. By attention to these details, and closing the house partly, at least, keeping front sashes closed, preventing the dry, external air from reaching the plants, a comparatively cool atmosphere can be maintained. During the night, all the air possible may be given, that the plants may participate of the lowering of temperature universally consequent upon the absence of light.
Attention must now be directed to the stock of winter flowering plants, such as bouvardias, linensis, heliotropes, cinerarias, Chinese primrose, scarlet pelargoniums, coronillas, cytisus, etc. Shift such as require it into larger pots, and pinch the points of the shoots, in order to increase the number of flowering branches.