This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
The following short epitome of rose-treatment contains all that is really necessary to be said on the subject: - Be not afraid of using the knife; one eye is enough to leave of any branch of the last year's growth, unless more are required to form the plant. Strong loam two parts and dung one part will grow the rose to perfection, although in most cases ordinary garden soil, with a good spadeful of dung to each plant, will do very well. To make handsome standard roses the head should be as wide across as the lower branches are high above the ground. In pruning, let all healthy branches that are growing in a proper direction be retained, but having attained the form of the head, spur them closely every year. Cut down all upright growing branches to the height you want side ones, leaving the top bud pointing in the direction they should grow. For the general feature of your garden, make use of continuous bloomers; that is, those of the nature of common China. -Summer roses, that bloom a month and no more, are worthless, except for exhibition purposes. If you should desire, however, to grow summer roses, let them have a quarter in the garden to themselves.
Never let their flowerless heads cast a gloom over the borders from July to November. Half prune in the autumn to lessen the weight that has to stand against the wind, and finish in February. In planting never forget to cut off, with a clear sharp cut, every portion of damaged root, for bruised ends and ragged wounds are generally fatal. Briars and other stocks for budding, should be planted in autumn, that they may be well-established when wanted. Bud when the bark of the stock will part easily from the wood, and be quick in performing the operation. Bud as close as possible to the main stock; it makes a better head, and is close to its support. Put cuttings in the open ground in October and November; two joints under ground, and one or two above. Get roses, as soon as you can get them to grow, into the form you want; from that time cut every year's growth back to a single eye. This applies to dwarfs, standards, bushes, and climbers. A tender rose on a standard will take less harm if lifted and laid in "by the heels," under shelter, than it will if it stand out; plant again in its proper place in the spring.
Tender roses may, nevertheless, if you approve of the appearance, be tied in close, and covered with moss, straw, or matting, or even with an oil paper-cap. Cut off all lading flowers. It helps the remainder and prolongs the bloom> besides looking neat and clean. Strike all cuttings at the fell of the leaf in preference to any other time, and an ordinary border will do for them. China roses that grow and bloom all the ' year under glass, may be grafted or budded at any time, provided the stock be also China, and growing also.