This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
The address of J. W. Robson before the Jo Daviess County (Illinois) Horticultural Society, has some excellent points relating to orchard culture, and especially the depredations of insects, and he recommends every orchardist to observe these few details every season:
"Ist. Encourage the black-cap titmouse and the hairy woodpecker, which destroy the insect in the pupa state.
2d. Light small bonfires in the orchard, on dark nights, after the sun has set. This will destroy the moth.
3d. Pick up wormy fruit as soon as it falls, run it right through the cider mill, or throw it to the hogs to be eaten.
4th. Strips of woolen cloth tied around the trunks when the trees are in bloom, and examined twice a week, will destroy those that have escaped and crawled there for shelter. They will be found generally in a transformation state, between worm and pupa.
5th. Place a bunch of weeds or soft hay in the crotch of the tree at the same time, and examine frequently. You have only to look at these dishes of beautiful fruit, to see how this insect destroys the appearance and lessens the market value of the apple.
Brother Horticulturists, up and be doing, bearing in mind that eternal vigilance is the price of handsome, perfect fruit! "