In recent years there has been great development of the desire to standardize knowledge in agriculture; and to this end many formal plans have been devised to enable one to set numerical measures to the various attributes of an object or an establishment or an operation. One is thereby able " to judge," and to score the object by comparison with an ideal scale of points rather than with other objects like itself. Good scoring eliminates the old method at fairs, for example, of giving a first prize to the best of several competitors: it gives it only to those that score sufficiently high in a scale of grades of perfection.

The making of score-cards has now come to be a popular practice in the colleges of agriculture, in fairs, and in societies, and the number of published cards is very large. In this chapter only a few representative scores can be given; score-cards for animals are given in Chap. XXI. If the reader wants score-cards of the different breeds of animals, he may find them in Vol. III of the Cyclopedia of American Agriculture.