The " agricultural virtues " (Pearson).
Better prices, more than anything else, have put new life into our agriculture, and have brought about a disposition on the part of some farmers to adopt better methods, and have emphasized the greater opportunity open to all farmers and the need of the general adoption of the best methods, such as are well known to the few. These best methods include the following:
1. Conservation of fertility.
2. Thorough cultivation.
4. Growth of leguminous crops.
5. The use of cover-crops.
6. The proper use of lime and commercial fertilizers.
7. Crop rotation.
8. Selection of seed.
9. Spraying for fungous and insect pests.
10. Disposal of poor cows.
11. Use of pure-bred sires.
12. Feeding economical rations.
13. Protection against bovine tuberculosis.
14. Production of clean milk.
15. Keeping of farm business accounts.
16. Use of mechanical power and machinery.
17. Employment of labor throughout the year.
18. Maintaining a reputation for honesty.
19. The providing of home comforts.
20. Reading reliable agricultural publications.
Loudon's rules for gardeners.
1. Perform every operation in the proper season and in the best manner.
2. Complete every operation consecutively.
3. Never, if possible, perform one operation in such a manner as to render another necessary.
4. When called off from any operation, leave your work and tools in an orderly manner.
5. In leaving off work, make a temporary finish, and clean your tools and carry them to the tool-house.
6. Never do that in the garden or hothouses which can be equally well done in the reserve ground or in the back sheds.
7. Never pass a weed or insect without pulling it up or taking it off, unless time forbid.
8. In gathering a crop, take away the useless as well as the useful parts.
9. Let no plant ripen seeds, unless they are wanted for some purpose, useful or ornamental, and remove all parts which are in a state of decay.
Essential things to consider in the organization of a farm.
It is difficult to state principles underlying the proper layout and organization of a farm, since the plan must conform to the person and to local conditions. The leading points to consider are perhaps the following: The adaptation of the plan to the kind of farming that is to be pursued.
The best utilization of the different soils and exposures and natural features on the place.
The economizing of time and labor in reaching all parts of the farm.
The best location of buildings with reference to efficiency of administration.
Such layout as will best provide for rotation and the maintenance of fertility.
A proper proportion between the different parts, as between tilled and untilled land, forest and open, meadow and pasture, forage crops and grazing, orchards and annual crops.
Provision for the necessary live-stock.
Such shape and size of fields as will best lend them to economical working.
Provision for the more personal parts of the place, as gardens, yards, and ornamental features.
Development of the artistic or attractive appearance of the entire estate.