Yields of field crops (Cyclo. Am. Agric.)

As reported by observers in several parts of the continent

Yields of field crops 91

Yields of field crops - Continued

As reported for this volume by observers in several parts of the continent

Yields of field crops 92


Yields of field crops - Continued

As reported for this volume by observers in several parts of the continent

Yields of field crops 93

Propagation-Tables Tabular statement of the ways in which plants are propagatedl

Yields of field crops 94

Particular methods by which various fruits are multiplied

Barberry.......Cuttings of mature wood; seeds.

Orange.......Seeds; seedlings budded or grafted.

Figs........Cuttings, either of soft or mature wood.

Mulberry......Cuttings of mature wood. Some varieties are root-grafted, and some are budded. Olive........Cuttings of mature or even old wood. Chips from the trunks of old trees are sometimes used :

Pomegranate.....Cuttings, layers, and seeds.

Apple and Pear .... Seeds; seedlings budded or grafted.

Peach and other stone-fruits Seeds; seedlings budded. Peach-trees are sold at one year from the bud, but other stone-fruit trees are planted when two or three years old.

Quince.......Cuttings, usually; the cuttings often grafted.

Grape........Cuttings of from one to three buds; layers.

Currant and Gooseberry . . Cuttings ; gooseberry oftener by mound-layers. Raspberries, red .... Suckers from the root; root-cuttings. Raspberries, black and purple Layers from tips of canes; root-cuttings.

Blackberry......Root-cuttings; suckers from the root.

Dewberry......Layers of tips of the canes ; root-cuttings.

Dwarf Juneberry .... Sprouts or suckers from the root. Cranberry......Layers or divisions.

1 Modified from a synopsis prepared by B. M. Watson, Jr., Bussey Institution.

Strawberry......Runners; tip-cuttings.

Banana.......Suckers from the crown.

Stocks commonly used for various fruits

Almond.......Peach, hard-shell almond, plum.

Apple........Common apple seedlings, Paradise and Doucin stocks, crab-apple and wild crab. " French crab " stocks are common apple seedlings reared in France and imported.

Apricot.......Apricot and peach in mild climates, and plum in severe ones; Marianna.

Cherry.......Mazzard stocks are preferred for standards;

Mahaleb stocks are used for dwarfing. The wild pin-cherry (Prunus Pennsylvanica) is sometimes used as stock in the Northwest, on account of its hardiness. Seedlings of Morelio cherries are also used there.

Medlar.......Hawthorn, medlar, quince.

Mulberry......Seedlings of white and Russian mulberry; cuttings of Downing.

Orange.......Seedlings; Otaheite orange, shaddock; Citrus trifoliata, particularly for dwarfs.

Peach and Nectarine . . . Peach. Plum is often used when dwarfs are wanted, or when the peach must be grown in a too severe climate or upon heavy soil.

Pear........Pear (seedlings of common pear and the Chinese type). Quince (rarely mountain ash, or thorn) for dwarfs. Apple temporarily.

Persimmon, Japanese . . Native persimmon.

Plum........Plum, myrobalan plum, peach; Marianna.

Quince.......The finer varieties are sometimes grafted upon strong-growing kinds like the Angers. When cuttings are difficult to root, they are sometimes grafted upon apple roots, the foster-root being removed upon transplanting, if it does not fall away of itself.

How vegetable crops are propagated

By seeds

Artichoke, globe also by offsets (see p. 132) Kohlrabi

Asparagus                                                              Leek