Origin and Production. The constantly increasing consumption of turpentine oil induced the English Government as early as 1888 to try out in Dehra Dun1) (Northwest Provinces) the common Pinus Iongifolia, Roxb. for the production of turpentine. Since this place is too far removed from the railroad, the production at this point had to be abandoned2). Later two other distilleries were erected: one in Naini Tal in 1895 and the other in Nurpur in 1899, both in the district Kangra, Province of Punjab. Because of their more favorable location, both yield better returns. The production of turpentine extends over the extensive pine forests of the Himalaya in the north west province and in the Punjab3).

The total output of oil of but 50000 gals, has thus far been consumed at home4). The world market has not yet taken an interest in the product. A possible reason for this may lie in the sylvestrene content of the Indian oil of turpentine. Because of this variation in composition from other turpentine oils, it cannot be used equally well for all purposes.

According to a communication of the Forest Administration in the United Provinces5), the profits for the Naini-Tal district for 1911 amounted to 85195 Rs., as against 38705 Rs. for 1910. The production is to be increased greatly in the future. The trees, 250000 at a time, are tapped once in 15 years.

According to F. Rabak6), Indian turpentine is white, non-transparent, very sticky and granular, resulting from the crystallization of resin acid. The turpentine-like odor is peculiar, but pleasant, reminding somewhat of limonene; d 0,990; [a]D - 7°42'; A. V. 129; E. V. 11. The yield of oil amounts to from 14 to 20 p.c.

1) Chemist and Druggist 65 (1904), 831.

2) Chem. Ztg. 33 (1909), 808.

3) Comp. also G.Watt.The commercial products of India. London 1909, p. 889. *) Chemist and Druggist 77 (1910), 625.

5) The Indian Trade Journal 25 (1912), No. 314, p. 25.

6) Pharm. Review 23 (1905), 229.

According to R. S. Pearson1) Pinus excelsa, Wall, and P. Khasya, Royle are used for the production of turpentine in India.

Properties. Indian oil of turpentine has a peculiar, pleasant, somewhat sweetish odor; d15o,0,8662) to 0,87343); aD + 0°43' to + 3° 13' and - 0°45' to - 2°10 4). Distilled from an ordinary fractionating flask, it begins to boil at 165°. The lowest fraction is laevogyrate, the higher fractions are dextrogyrate.

Composition. In addition to small amounts of a-pinene (m.p. of nitrolbenzylamin 121 to 122°) and B-pinene (m.p. of nopinic acid 125°), the oil contains appreciable amounts of d-sylvestrene (m. p. of chlorhydrate 71 to 72°). In the higher fractions a sesquiterpene of the following properties, has been found: d15o0,9371; aD+37°4'; nD20o1,50252. It yielded a chlorhydrate that crystallized in large needles and melted at 59,5 to 60,5°. The sesquiterpene could not be identified with any of the known ones5).

In addition to /-a-pinene and sylvestrene, H. H. Robinson6) found dipentene in the oil. According to Robinson, it is not impossible that the sylvestrene does not exist as such in the oil, but that the oil contains a hydrocarbon which, when treated with hydrogen chloride, yields a sylvestrene derivative, just as pinene, when acted upon with dry hydrogen chloride, yields a chlorhydrate which, upon the removal of hydrogen chloride, yields camphene.