Origin and Production. The distillates of two pines that are indigenous to Burma and there widely distributed, viz. .Pinus Khasya, Royle and Pinus Merkusii, Jungh. et de Vriese, have been examined by Armstrong1). Aside from their optical rotation, both are identical with French turpentine as to their properties. Armstrong is of the opinion that India can supply its entire demand of turpentine oil from Burma should it be possible there to create a turpentine industry.

1) Commercial guide to the economic forest products of India. Calcutta 1912, p. 139. This contains an illustration of a tapped "Chir"-tree (Pinus longifolia).

2) Pharm. Review 23 (1905), 229.

3) Report of Schimmel & Co. April 1906, 64. 4) Bull. Imp. Inst. 9 (1911), 8.

5) Report of Schimmel & Co. April 1911, 117; October 1911, 93. 6) Proceed, chem. Soc. 27 (1911), 247.

The turpentine from Pinus Merkusii yielded almost 19 p. c. of oil with a specific gravity of 0,8610 and [a]D +31°45'.

The turpentine from Pinus Khasya yielded upon distillation 13 p.c. of oil, sp. gr. 0,8627 and [a]D + 36°28'.

Under the directions of the Conservator of Forests for East Bengal and Assam, attempts on a smaller scale were made a few years ago to produce turpentine from Pinus Khasya-). However, the yield per tree did not amount to one ounce, hence the attempt had to be pronounced a failure. The failure was attributed principally to the season during which the trees were tapped.

Composition. Henderson and Eastburn3) found d-a-pinene in Burma turpentine oil. It was identified by its oxidation to pinol hydrate (m. p. 131°) by means of mercuric acetate.