The Douglas fir or red fir is one of the most common and most valuable trees of North America and constitutes a principal factor in the extensive coniferous forests of the Northwest of the United States. It is known by the following synonyms: Pseudotsuga mucronata, Sudworth, P. Doug/asii, Carr., P. Doug/asii taxifolia, Carr., P. Douglasii denudata, Carr., P. Lindleyana, Carr., P. taxifolia, Britton, P. Douglasii var. glauca, Mayr, P. taxifolia var. elongata, Lemmon, Pinus taxifolia, Lambert, P. Douglasii, D. Don, P. canadensis, B. Hooker, P. Douglasii var. taxifolia, Antoine, P. Douglasii war. brevibracteata, Antoine, Abies taxifolia, Poir., A. mucronata, Raf., A. mucronata var. palustris, Raf., A. Douglasii, Lindl., A. Douglasii, var. taxifolia, Loudon, Picea Douglasii, Lk., Picea Douglasii, Bertrand, Tsuga Douglasii, Carr., T. Douglasii fastigeata, Carr., T. Lindleyana, Roezl.
From the fresh needles and twigs of small trees and under-brush, I. W. Brandel and M. Sweet3) obtained 0,8 to 1 p.c. of a greenish-yellow oil. It had a limonene-like odor, d23o 0,8680; aD - 62,5°; A. V. 0; S. V. 86,6, corresponding to 30,3 p. c. of bornyl acetate; S. V. after acetylation 92,1 (27,18 p.c. of borneol). Fractionation showed that the oil consisted principally of terpenes. The lower fractions though they possessed a pinene-like odor, yielded no nitrosochloride. Fraction 175 to 176° had the odor of limonene, but a tetrabromide could not be obtained, presumably because of the small amount. The fractions boiling between 161 and 169° constituted the bulk of the oil and contained camphene, m.p. 47°. The residue (b. p. above 190°), after saponification, boiled principally between 180 and 205°. The borneol present was oxidized to camphor (m. p. 171°; m. p. of oxime 113°).
1) Pharm. Review 17 (1899), 507. 2) Arch, der Pharm. 242 (1904), 528. 3) Pharm. Review 26 (1908), 326.