The ancients said that the ching-lo were blood vessels, that in the outside of each viscus there were two roots; except the bladder which had four branches. I saw in the course of my examinations over 100 viscera and I found no such vessels emerging from them and so I have drawn the diagrams exhibiting this.

Remarks. - The fundamental error as already noted, into which our author falls, is his mistaking the arteries for air vessels. What he therefore calls his ' right and left air doors' are nothing else than the right and left common carotids which arise from the arch of the aorta, the right springing from the arteria innominata and the left direct from the transverse portion of the arch of the aorta. According to "Wang's view these two vessels unite with the trachea between them to form one vessel which enters the heart; this is the aorta which issues out of the left ventricles or as he says the left side of the heart and inclines horizontally backwards and unites with the wei-tsung vessel which is the descending aorta. This is the term for the arteries in general and has precisely the same meaning as originally attached to artery, viz., air vessel. He does not explain how the vessel entering the heart and rising from it must be the same. He could not have confounded the pulmonary artery and aorta. His description clearly points to the aorta as entering and leaving the heart.

By the lung vessel is meant the trachea. In many Chinese drawings the trachea is made to enter the heart, instead of the lungs. Mr. Wang is perfectly correct in his view of the lung vessel and the name he gives it indicates this. It divides into two branches which enter and proceed to the bottom by the lungs. He is particular on this last point for an obvious reason.

If we include the large vessels springing out of the heart, he is not far wrong in saying that the heart and upper border of the lungs are on the same level. He speaks of six lobes between the two lungs. The lungs we know have only five lobes, the right three and left two. He is right when he says that the pulmonary pleura have no holes. One of the most serious mistakes committed by the ancients was in the matter of these holes which permitted the air to circulate all over the body. He is right in saying that the liver has four lobes. He speaks of five but it is more to bring the number into harmony with the five fissures, five vessels and five ligaments, for the lobulus caudatus is hardly worthy of the name and at best is but the tail of the lobus.

In this we have perhaps an instance of our own addiction to the power of numbers.

The tsung-ti is the pancreas and may properly be said to lie above the stomach. On opening the abdomen if the liver be raised and the lesser omentum removed a part of the pancreas is seen along the lesser or upper curvature of the stomach.

The pylorus in the rough drawing is placed at the bottom of the descending portion of the duodenum, thus including the upper portion of the small intestines in the stomach. The cho-shih would thus become the pylorus or rather the circular or crescentic folds formed by the reduplication of the mucus membranes. The chin-men becomes then from its location in the drawing either the hepatic or cystic duct formed by the union of the two common bile duct3 which is made to enter the stomach on the right upper aspect and this again with the duct of the pancreas before entering the small bowel. The pancreas is not represented here with any duct and the chin (saliva) vessel appears to come from (or in his sense) to proceed to the gall bladder or liver. The lung vessel certainly refers to the hilus or vertical fissure dividing the internal surface of the spleen, indicated by a fissure running through the whole length of the organ. The drawing, however, of this vessel illustrates roughly the areolar framework of the organ with dense meshes of tissues. The explanation perhaps of the expression that from this lung vessel exit-watercourses proceed four in number one each side, may be considered the four branches into which the splenic artery divides, which enter the hilus of the organ and ramify through its substance. Each branch of the artery runs in the transverse axis of the organ from within outwards and gives off smaller branches. These branches in the absence of any knowledge of the arterial circulation may be considered as the exit-water-courses. The same remarks would of course hold good as applied to the veins. In the drawing which is, of course, of the roughest description, the water courses have closed ends towards the central vessel and open ends towards the circumference which seems absurd. The soft white semi-fluid albuminous substance contained in the capsules might suggest the organ as engaged in separating the water. It is altogether impossible to understand how the water percolates out of the heart and enters the bladder and becomes urine, unless we suppose by the heart that blood is meant or that the lung vessel, the splenic artery, connects with the descending aorta which springs out of the heart. This latter is the most natural explanation, the former pre-supposes a knowledge of physiology which the Chinese to this day do not possess. The intermediary organs - the kidneys, are of course left out of the calculation. In the diagram of the bladder no ureters are indicated.

The c'hi-fu is a thing of our author's own creation; it may refer to the great omentum or the mesentery, more properly the latter from the description of its appearance and from the fact that it is attached to the posterior wall of the abdomen, the place which the Chinese assume to be the origin of the primordial air.

The two air vessels of the kidneys are the renal arteries, which arise from the sides of the aorta - the author's wei-tsung vessel. The drawing represents them in a curved manner instead of proceeding as the renal arteries do at nearly a right angle from the aorta.