This name is applied to dislocations which occur without any considerable violence, and they usually imply a previously diseased state of the joints. The disease is generally inflammation or tuberculosis, both of which soften the ligaments and alter the form of the joints.


Adams, On Club-foot, 1866; Eschricht, Deutsch. Klinik, 1851; Michaud, Arch. d. phys., iii., 1870; Holl, Langenbeck's Arch., xxv., 1880; Symington (Flat-foot), Jour, of Anat. and Phys., 1884-85; Kennedy (Flat-foot), Glasg. Med. Jour., xlii., 1894.