1. Congenital malformations, chiefly of the heart and great vessels. Causation. Forms. Cyanosis a common result. II. Coagula in the heart; the various forms of thrombi. III. Occlusion and stenosis of the coronary arteries. Causes. Phenomena in acute and chronic obstruction. IV. Retrograde changes. (1) Atrophy, including brown atrophy, (2) Fatty infiltration, (3) Fatty degeneration, (4) Calcareous infiltration, (5) Other forms, (6) Injuries and rupture. V. Hypertrophy and Dilatation. Causes, including overstrain. Forms of hypertrophy. VI. Inflammation. (1) Myocarditis, parenchymatous, purulent, and interstitial, (2) Endocarditis, acute, chronic, and ulcerative, (3) Pericarditis, acute, chronic, and tubercular. VII. Valvular disease. (1) Insufficiency and (2) Stenosis of mitral, (3) Insufficiency and (4) Stenosis of aortic valves, (5) Valvular disease of right heart.