This disease is met with chiefly in horses, but is occasionally communicated to man. The name Farcy is sometimes given to the disease when the skin and lymphatic system are specially engaged.

Causation

The disease has been shown by Loffler and Schiitz to depend on a bacillus which resembles the tubercle bacillus in form, but does not contain spores and requires different methods of staining. (See in section on Bacteriology).

Character Of Lesion

The disease in horses manifests itself first in the formation of swellings of the mucous membrane or skin, consisting of granulation tissue. The nasal mucous membrane is generally first attacked, and there is either a diffuse infiltration of it or else a more localized series of swellings like those of lupus. From this seat the disease spreads to neighbouring lymphatic glands, also along the mucous membrane to the lungs and intestinal tract. The skin also becomes the seat of lesions.

The granulation tissue here, even more than in the other infective tumours, tends to break down, so that, as a rule, ulcers soon form, which present a great tendency to spread. These ulcers arise by what is virtually a suppurative process, and if the tumours are situated deep in the skin or mucous membrane there may be actual abscesses, which, by bursting, form ulcers. If the ulcers heal, cicatrices are formed in the usual way.

The manifestations in internal parts are largely inflammatory in character. The lymphatic glands of the neck are the seat of inflammatory swelling. In the lungs there are nodules either consisting of granulation tissue with caseous central parts, or more distinctly pueumonic. There are also in the mucous membrane of the intestinal canal nodules which are sometimes solid, at other times breaking down into pus.

The above description applies to the acute cases, which are the commoner, but the disease is sometimes chronic in its course. Chronic cases have usually the nodules in the skin, and there are secondary tumours in the muscles, etc.

In man, -glanders, which occurs occasionally in persons engaged about horses, is usually an acute, rapidly fatal disease. There are nodules and ulcers in the mucous membranes and the skin, and frequently phlegmonous inflammation of the skin with abscesses among the muscles, etc. In fact, in man the disease takes the in-flammatory character more distinctly than in the horse. We may have in man also nodules, ulcers, and abscesses in internal organs. Sometimes the abscesses in the lungs, kidneys, etc., cause the disease to resemble pyaemia. At other times the juices from the ulcers in the nose or mouth being inhaled, may give rise to lesions like those of phthisis pulmonalis.

Chronic glanders in man is characterized by ulcers in the mucous membranes of fauces, bronchi, etc., and in the skin. There may be caseating nodules in internal organs.

Literature

Virchow, Geschwiilste, vol. ii.; Bollinger, Ziemssen's Handb., vol. iii.; Loffler und Schutz, Deutsche med. Wochenschr., Dec. 1882.