Amino acids have been separated into groups based upon their effects at different levels. The first group includes the simple amino acids. In these members the portions of the molecule which are added to the amphoteric amino acid group, are usually electrically neutral. The amino acids polymerized through the amphoteric group serve as building materials for the bigger protein molecules. They have appeared to be inert without effects upon the different levels. Beyond these simple amino acids, are two groups, energetically active, which have a second energetic center with a negative or positive character in their molecules. While the amino acid group serves to make these substances parts of higher proteins through the same bonds of amino acid groups as the simple members, it is the other energetic center, with acid or alkaline character, which confers upon these amino acids a positive or negative character.

We studied effects, at different levels, of arginine, lysine and histidine, which are members of the group with alkaline centers; of glutamic and aspartic acids which have acid centers; and of methionine with a thiolic center. Like for the lipids, the last two groups have shown similar properties, but opposite to those of the members with alkaline centers. The nature of their intervention appeared evident through the interesting opposite effects exerted upon microbes. Cultures of B. subtilis in broth containing members of one or the other of the antagonistic groups show characteristic changes. Unlike controls in which the long chains of microbes remain isolated, the microbes were seen to be kept together in media with alkaline amino acids, forming a consistent gelatinous mass separated from the medium. In broth with acidic or thiolic amino acids, the microbes remained separated or formed very small aggregates. This appeared interesting when we considered the positive character present in alkaline amino acids, as related to the heterotopic, constructive trend, while the negative, as in the acid and thiolic members, is related to the opposite trend. We saw further the same antagonism between the influence exerted by histones and nucleic acids, the first paralleling the alkaline amino acid groups and the second the opposite group. The more manifest effect of the ribonucleic acids could be seen to take place at higher levels of the organization and possibly explains the more direct action upon the genes.

We investigated the effect of the two groups of amino acids at the tissue level upon pain. Arginine, lysine and histidine displayed an analgesic effect upon alkaline pain, while glutamic acid and methionine had this effect upon acid pain. The effect could be related more to the basic tendency of these substances to act through metabolic changes, than to a direct influence upon the acid base systemic balance. The first group acts as heterotropic agents and the second as homotropic, as mentioned above.

Abnormal Amino Acids

Our research led us to several tentatives to define abnormal amino acids and the proteins they form. One concerned their rotatory capacity. The naturally occurring amino acids are all levorotatory. However, the organism constantly has enzymes able to attack dextrorotatory amino acid members as if it would have to be prepared to encounter and destroy them. Such dextrorotatory members can be conceived to appear on a statistical basis as the result of the resonance process seen to occur in all the synthesis in nature. The intervention of specific enzymes against them would have the aim to control their existence and especially to prevent their intervention in further evolution. In a work hypothesis concerning the cancerous process, we considered that their persistence and especially their participation in forming hierarchic entities would correspond to the specific abnormality characterizing this condition.

In another work hypothesis which concerns also cancerous processes and which we will discuss later, abnormal proteins are thought to appear as a result of the bond of a carbamic radical (295) to the amino acid group. The resulting cyclic formation having the characteristic NCNC group in it, would correspond to abnormal amino acids which would represent the primary characteristic formation of the cancerous condition. (See Chapter 11, Note 1)

Carbohydrates—Glucose acts as an anti fatty acid agent, possibly because of the glyceryl compounds resulting from its metabolism. We have studied it in opposition to the respective acids—gluconic, glucuronic and saccharic. Glucose has an analgesic effect, although limited, upon pain of an alkaline pattern, and an opposite effect upon pain of an acid pattern.

The acid group has an opposite effect upon pain. This could be correlated with the changes toward acidosis seen in the local pH of the lesions. A manifest change toward acidosis was seen under the influence of glucose in the second day wound crust pH. We have noted previously the role played by glucuronic acid as an agent with anti positive lipid activity. We believe that it is largely through this mechanism that it favorably influences acid pain, having an indirect action similar to that of fatty acids.