With the recognition that elements act biologically in two opposite directions, we became interested in those with anti D character, capable of intervening in offbalance D. We studied the direct action of these agents upon fatty acids, as well as their indirect action upon processes and substances related to the metabolic changes characterizing the offbalance D.

We separated these inducing elements—according to their series and the compartments where they predominantly exercise their influence. The following table shows this systematization.

Table XIX. "A" Inducing Group Or Anti D Group

Metals

Non Metals

Series

Series

Compartments

IA

IVB

VIB

VTII

VIII'

IIB

IIIA

VA

VIIA

Organism

Li

B

N

F

Metazoic

Na

Al

P

CI

Cellular

K

Ti

Cr

Fe

Ni

Zn

Ga

As

Br

Nuclear

Rb

Zr

Mo

Ru

Pd

Cd

In

Sb

I

At

Submorphologic

Cs

Hf

W

Os

Pt

Hg

Tl

Bi

Primary

Fr

To these elements we can add others from the lanthanum and actinium series which have anti D characteristics. They would act in the submorphologic al and primary compartments.

Compartment Anti D Elements

Submorphologic La Pr Pm Eu Tb Ho Tm Lu

Primary Ac Pa Np Am Bk

Many of these elements are known to have influences antagonistic to those of members of the D inducing group. We will consider them in more detail below.

Concerning their influence on fatty acids, some members such as those of the VII A series are known to affect fatty acids with an active nonpolar group by inactivating their double bonds, while other elements have anti fatty acid action by binding their polar groups. Some exert this influence indirectly through the metabolism in which they take part.

We have studied these different aspects of the influence of the elements which will be presented here only in condensed form.

Monovalent Cations

One interesting aspect of monovalent cations is their correlation with organizational hierarchic compartments. Study of this correlation was first suggested by the selective distribution of monovalent cations according to levels of organization. From the previous discussion, it seems clear that the distribution into compartments can be related to positions of these elements in different periods. Sodium is the principal cation at levels above the cell, forming the metazoic compartment. Potassium, which is the next higher element in the series, is the predominant cation in cytoplasm. According to our hypothesis, ammonium, with properties resembling those of rubidium, can be considered to be the cation of the nuclear compartment.

We have only limited evidence of direct anti fatty acid activity for members of this I A series. However, they produce characteristic changes in conditions in which an offbalance exists. They induce the type "A," as an antagonistic to the type "D" offbalance. The changes are especially evident in terms of the function of the compartment to which the cation belongs.

Sodium

Sodium, the cation of the metazoic compartment, corresponds to the environment of the sea in which the entities of this compartment developed. We have indicated previously the relationship between the time when the metazoic compartment was formed, the degree of salinity of the sea, and the concentration of the cation established as a constant in the compartment. Any excess of sodium is eliminated through the kidneys in order to conserve the metazoic constant. If an excessive supply is retained for long, it favors the appearance of manifestations, which correspond largely to an offbalance of type A in the metazoic compartment.

We could show that the appearance of aorta atheromas in animals receiving an excess of dietary cholesterol is promoted by concomitant administration of sodium. This occurs not only in rabbits but also in rats in which a cholesterol rich diet alone does not induce such lesions. Excess of sodium also favors the appearance of thiamine induced convulsions in animals. In rats and mice kept on high salt intake, the convulsant dose of thiamine fell from around 150 mgr./100 grams to below 100 mgr./100 grams of body weight. Administration of sodium—in the form of sodium chloride and especially as sodium lactate—favorably influences the state of shock which, as we have seen, corresponds to a change taking place principally at the metazoic level. In superacute and acute shock, we considered the excess of sodium present at still lower levels, such as cells and tissues, to be one of the pathogenic factors. The anomaly lies not alone in the excess but in the fact that the excess is at a level to which the cation does not belong.

The study of sodium metabolism in the light of organizational systematization of elements has revealed the importance of two factors; the combination which is "proper" for an element in its normal compartment and distribution of the element among compartments. In abnormal conditions, the unusual combinations occur. At the metazoic compartment, the bond of sodium to chloride can be considered to be normal. We have seen that, when this combination does not take place, the result is an anomaly characterized by accumulation of excess amounts of sodium in the immediately higher compartment.

In state of shock, for example, the pathogenic anomaly in fatty acids leads them to bind the chloride ion. This removes the normal combining factor for sodium which then passes on to the immediately superior compartment, the gastro intestinal tract. This explains not only the excessive passage of sodium to the duodenum but also its retention there. The fact that sodium is present in reduced amounts in blood and in excessive amounts in the duodenum in the state of shock, illustrates the rule discussed above which we believe governs the distribution between levels of elements in abnormalities.