The hierarchic organization of organisms, with the conservation of successive entities, puts the problem of entity multiplication in a new light. According to the hierarchic organization concept, the multiplication of a complex entity means the reproduction of the entire series of hierarchic entities forming it. In this process, the intervention of each hierarchic entity appears highly individualized. And this applies not only for the morphologically identifiable entities, but even for the most primitive entities. The difference between the role played by the principal and secondary parts becomes capital for these processes. While for each entity the principal part has to be built as such, the parts corresponding to the secondary parts are taken from the immediate environment. The quantitative disproportion between some principal and secondary parts makes the role of the first difficult to be recognized. The complex entity, through changes that are the reverse of those of ontogenetic and phylogenetic hierarchic development, separates the successive principal parts which characterize it. With the replication which takes place the division occurs successively for these hierarchic entities. In scissiparity the division morphologically occurs at the cell level; in karyokinesis, it can be identified at the chromomere level and certainly takes place much lower in the hierarchic entities. In replication in general, different constituents available are adequately changed by the respective principal part to form the necessary secondary parts. Through these changes the same processes are reproduced which originally occurred when the entity had been phylogenetically organized.

With the individualization of the low hierarchic entities the problem of replication is simplified. Once replication occurs, the same process takes place successively for the progressively higher levels. Above chromomeres this appears very clear in karyokinesis.

After the chromomeres divide, two or four chromonemata appear. The process goes on within the chromosome, nucleus and cell. In order to protect its individuality each hierarchic entity is protected during its division. The chromosomial membrane, the cellular cytoplasm and the cellular membrane continue to protect the respective entities as they divide. The cell itself divides only when the two nuclei have had their protecting membranes rebuilt.

In the division and multiplication of a complex entity, the return to entities as low as subnucleic parts indicates the relative importance for the characterization of the complex entity and for the conservation of its particular properties of the parts added during the hierarchic development. The entity must, in fact, rid itself of these added parts which, although they have other importance, have a secondary role even in the processes of multiplication.

It is interesting to note that a similar return to more primitive component entities also occurs, although it is less pronounced, when an entity, tissue, organ or organism has to fight a noxious intervention. The defense is passed progressively from the organ to the tissues and from these to the cells. In effect, there is a renunciation of added parts during these moments of crisis. Even at the cell level, a similar process is seen. The added parts, represented by the protoplasmatic formations, disappear. The almost non differentiated cell fights the noxious factor at the lowest levels of its organization.