"Foods coarse, and largely vegetable, especially among the country people, which means four-fifths of the population. Chinese are not meat eaters to a great extent." - F. F. Tucker, Pangkiachwang, Shantung, China.

"The natives eat much vegetables, which regulates the bowels." - Cecil I. Davenport, Shanghai, China.

"The natives note that in eating pumpkins and prunes they have more bowel movements. An old man told me that if a person, early in the morning before taking any food, eats ten fresh prunes from the tree, he'll have bowel movements easily." - G. Yeram, Gumaldjine, Turkey.

"The principal food of both city and rural population of the region is boolghoor (cracked wheat, which has been cooked, dried, and the thin outer skin removed before cracking). It is cooked in many ways. The commonest is to boil it about ten minutes, and add a little melted butter before serving), and coarse bread of wheat or barley, varied by lentils and other legumes, and the fermented milk of the country (yougurt in Turkish, leben in Arabic, or matzoon in Armenian). The village people eat considerable fruit, especially grapes in season, but very little meat or vegetables. The city dwellers eat a good deal of meat and vegetables, more fruit, and less youghurt than the villagers. They also eat finer bread and more spices and condiments. In general, I may say that constipation is relatively much less common than in America, and much less common among the villagers than the city people; in fact, very seldom seen in those who eat boolghoor. The posture assumed in defecation may also have something to do with it. They never sit on a stool, but always use the natural, squatting posture. In the city, where they have regular privies, the arrangement is a slit or opening in the floor, over which the person squats." - F. D. Shepard, Aintab, Turkey.

"Yoghurt is the form in which the milk is taken in Persia. We rarely see appendicitis in the natives. I often wonder whether the yogurt may be the preventive. The common people live on yoghurt cheese, bread, and fruit. Meat only occasionally. They all consider milk (not yoghurt) a laxative, and so it seems to be for the natives." - W. S. Vaunemann, Labriz, Persia.

"The diet seems to favor looseness, since it consists largely of coarse bread from unbolted flour; also in summer of large quantities of fruit ingested." - J. A. Funk, Hamadan, Persia.

"It is a common saying among them that milk acts as a laxative, especially if freshly milked and unboiled." - P. W. Brigstocke, Jerusalem, Palestine.

Raw milk undergoes fermentation in the intestine, whereas boiled milk putrefies and in this way produces constipation.

"The diet is largely a vegetable and cereal one, meat being eaten only occasionally." - A. F. Grant, Assiut, Egypt.

"The coarse simple diet - millet or corn porridge or bread, cabbage, soup, etc. - of the country seems to favor regularity of the bowels." - Mrs. Estella A. Perkins, Pao Ting, China.

"The almost exclusive vegetable diet - rice, cabbage, etc., - seems on the whole to be favorable, and constipation is not so common among the sedentary classes as might be expected." - B. S. Browne, Ningpo, China.

"Constipation is not common, but the inhabitants of Manchuria are mostly vegetarians, i. e., eat little butcher meat except on festive occasions." - Christie and Muir, Mukden.

"People suffering from diarrhoea frequently take rice and 'dahi' (curds, sour milk), to check it. Ordinary milk they generally consider constipating." - N. C. Henderson, India.

"People eat wheat, Indian corn, and millet seed breads. The first named is supposed to be constipating, and the last two laxative." - W. L. Pennell, Bannu, India.

"The coarse wheat and barley flour used for their bread is, without doubt, favorable to regularity." - Edna B. Kuslar, Phalera, India.

"Usual diet of rice with green vegetables, lentils or occasionally meat, favors regular motions. Boiled radishes favor diarrhoea, and fish favors constipation." - Dr. Minnie Gomery, Idlamabad, Kashmir.

"Diet, rice and vegetables, rarely meat. Rice is eaten in great excess. People pass large stools, as a lot of rice is ejected. Presumably nitrogen and salts are used up and starch excreted." - H. E. Rawlence, Srueagai, Kashmir, India.

The passing of quantities of undigested rice is doubtless due to the fact that the rice is imperfectly cooked, a custom very common in rice-eating countries, and perhaps a wholesome one. The Scotch highlander eats his oatmeal less than half cooked and is wonderfully sturdy. Some undigested starch in the feces prevents putrefaction.

"The diet being chiefly vegetarian (among the Hindus it is so entirely), the large amount of vegetables taken seems to act as the necessary stimulus to the bowel." - Robert Madison, M. D., Rajshalu, India.

"Diet of the people mostly fruit and vegetable.

Have found that when fruit and salad oil could be added, tongues are clean, moist and red. Where the white bread is taken in imitation of the foreigner, troubles begin similar to those at home. The national custom is to eat but two meals a day." - Belle J. Allen, Baroda Camp, India.

"Motions are large, bulky and not formed, but pultaceous. People of these parts eat largely of ground wheat and vegetables, not much meat. Hindus seldom eat flesh." - A. H. Browne, Am-ristsar, India.

"Meat tends to constipate; vegetables and milk tend to loosen." - M. M. Brown, Sargodha, Punjab, India.

"People coming from the interior are much more regular than those living in Smyrna, where more meat is eaten than in the interior. After some time in Smyrna, such people tend to become less regular." - D. McKenzie Newton, Smyrna.

"The use of peanuts in all forms, and the eating of cooked green leaves of several kinds, used daily keeps their bowels in good shape." - A. Sims Roma, Ferrovia, Italy.

"On the ordinary native diet there is scarcely ever any constipation. On other diet, occasionally." - E. MacKenzie, Hog Harbor, Santo, New Hebrides.

It is the universal testimony that cancer and appendicitis are extremely rare. Doctor Shepard, of Aintab, Turkey, who has had an enormous practice among the Turks for more than a century, and is perhaps recognized as the leading abdominal surgeon of the Orient, writes:

"There is relatively very little appendicitis here. I do from 500 to 600 important surgical operations a year, but only six to eight appendectomies. Cancer of the intestinal tract is quite rare (as are all forms of cancer), although ulcer of the stomach is common."

Dr. W. W. Peter, of Shanghai, says, "I never heard of appendicitis in a Chinaman."

The fact that cancer is a disease peculiar to advanced civilization is clearly shown by the replies received from one hundred and twelve physicians located in the following countries: Mexico, Palestine, Arabia, Turkey, Egypt, South Africa, East Africa, Central Africa, Nigeria, Japan, Syria, Korea, Persia, Siam, India, Asia Minor, New Hebrides. Forty-three of the one hundred and twelve reported that they had never seen cancer of the bowels. Nine physicians from different parts of Africa, the west coast, Tunis, Nigeria, Rhodesia, Uganda, East Africa, British Central Africa, the Portuguese Congo, and Belgian Congo all report having never seen a case of cancer of the bowels among the natives.