Cor'nus flor'ida, Cornus, Dogwood Bark, N.F., Cornaceae. -- The dried root-bark with not more than 5 p.c. of adhering wood nor 2 p.c. of other foreign organic matter; N. America. Small tree, 4.5-10.5 M. (15-35 degrees) high, 12.5-25 Cm. (5-10') thick, flowers greenish with 4 large white involucral leaves, petaloid; fruit bright red. Bark, in irregular, chiplike pieces, portions of quills less than 5 Cm. (2') long, bark 1-4 Mm. (1/25-1/6') thick, scaly, dingy brown, reddish where corky layers removed, heavy cork patches wanting (abs. of trunk bark); inner surface reddish-brown, short striae; fracture short, roughened from stone cells; odor slight; taste bitter, astringent. Powder, reddish-brown -- parenchyma cells with amorphous substance, stone cells, numerous calcium oxalate rosette crystals, starch grains, cork with brownish pigment; lignified fibers and trcheae very few or wanting (abs. of trunk bark and wood); solvent: diluted alcohol; contains cornin (cornic acid), tannin 3 p.c., resin, ash 10 p.c. Astringent, tonic, febrifuge, stimulant; when fresh -- emetic; formerly in large doses as an antiperiodic, given between the paroxysms, instead of cinchona, but owing to inferiority now seldom employed. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Corni (glycerin 15, diluted alcohol 85). Decoction, 5 p.c. 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).
C. Circina'ta, Round-leaved Dogwood. -- The bark, U.S.P. 1820-1860; N. America. Shrub 1.6-3 M. (5-10 degrees) high, branches greenish, warty; leaves round, 10-12.5 Cm. (4-5') wide, woolly beneath; flowers white cymes; fruit, blue drupe. Bark quilled, curved greenish, brownish-gray, with suberous warts or longitudinal lines, inside cinnamon-gray, with suberous warts or longitudinal lines, inside cinnamon-brown; used like C. Florida, but is more bitter and less astringent.
C. Amo'mum (seric'ea), Silky Cornel, Swamp Dogwood. -- The bark, U.S.P. 1820-1870; N. America. Shrub 1.6-3 M. (5-10 degrees) high, branches purple; leaves elliptical, silky beneath; flowers yellowish, woolly cymes. Fruit pale blue. Bark quilled, thin, outside purplish-brown, less warty than preceding, otherwise resembles it; used like C. Florida, but is less bitter and astringent.