Coriandrum. CORIANDRUM. CORIANDER, N.F.

Coriandrum Sativum, Linne'. The volatile oil distilled from the dried ripe fruit.

Habitat. C. Asia, S. Europe (Chine, Italy; cultivated in the United States, Europe.)

Syn. Coriand., Coriander Seed, Colander; Br. Coriandri Fructus; Fr. Coriandre; Ger. Koriander(samen); Ol. Coriand., Coriander Oil; Fr. Essence de Coriandre; Ger. Korianderol.

Co-ri-an'drum. L. Fr. Gr...., a bed-bug -- i.e., from a resemblance in odor of the leaves, also the entire plant and fruit when young.

Sa-ti'vum. L. Sativus, sown, cultivated -- i.e., kind used, in contradistinction to the wild- grown.

Plant

Annual herb, odor of bed-bugs; stem .3-.6 M. (1-2 degrees) high, solid; leaves bi- or tripinnate; leaflets linear, pointed, lobed, light green, resembling parsley; flowers June, white, rose-colored, umbels small, 4 Cm. (1 3/5') broad, 5-8-rayed. Fruit -- Coriandrum, Coriander (Seed), N.F. -- The dried ripe fruit with not more than 5 p.c. of other fruits, seeds, or other foreign organic matter, yielding not more than 1.5 p.c. of acid-insoluble ash, nor less than .5 p.c. of volatile ether-soluble extractive; mericarps usually coherent, but easily separated, cremocarp nearly globular, 2-5 Mm. (1/12-1/5') broad, yellowish-brown, apex with 5 calyx teeeth and short stylopodium; mericarps 2, each with 5 prominent, straight primary ribs and 4 distinct secondary ribs; commissural surface deeply concave with 2 vittae; odor and taste agreeably aromatic. Powder, light brown -- chiefly endosperm and lignified tissues of percarp, many calcium oxalate crystals in rosettes, aleurone grains, numerous globules of fixed oil, yellow oil tubes (vittae); solvents: alcohol, water partially. Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.).

Constituents

Volatile oil .5-1 p.c., fat 13 p.c., tannin, malic acid, mucilage, ash 7 p.c.

Oleum Coriandri. Oil of Coriander. -- This volatile oil, distilled with water or steam from the dried ripe fruit crushed between rollers, is a colorless, pale yellow liquid, characteristic odor and taste of coriander, soluble in 3 vols. of 70 p.c. alcohol, sp gr. 0.870, dextrorotatory; contains a terpene -- d-pinene, CH, 5 p.c., geraniol, borneol, and an alcohol--linalool (coriandrol), CHO, 45-90 p.c., from which 1 molecule of HO may be withdrawn, leaving CH16.  Should meet the requirements of the tests for heavy metals in volatile oils and be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.  Dose, mij-5 (.13-.3 cc.).

Adulterations

Fruit

Stems, fragments of leaves; OIL: Oils of turpentine, sweet orange, cubeb and cedar-wood-all recognized by being less soluble in 70 p.c. alcohol.

Commercial

Coriander was popular with the ancients; in the fresh state all parts upon being bruised are fetid, the fruit becoming fragrant only upon drying; when ripe plants are cut down with sickles, dried, and fruit thrashed out. Russia produces the bulk of the crop, although we grow mostly our home consumption; that from Bombay (Indian) is larger and ovoid but seldom reaches the United States.

Coriandrum: fruit and longitudinal section magnified 3 diam.; transverse section magnified 8 diam.

Preparations

Oil

1. Fluidextractum Cascarae Sagradae Aromaticum, 1/100 p.c. 2. Spiritus Aurantii Compositus, 2 p.c. 3. Syrupus Sennae, ½ p.c. 4. Confectio Sennae, N.F., ½ p.c. 5. Emulsa, as preferred. FRUIT: 1 Fluidextractum Stillingiae Compositum, N.F., 6.3 p.c. 2. Infusum Gentianae Compositum, N.F., 4/5 p.c. Fluidextractum, mxv-30 (1-2 cc.). Infusion, 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).

Properties

Aromatic, carminative, stimulant, stomachic.

Uses

Indigestion, flatulency, corrective to griping medicines, such as senna, rhubarb, jalap, flavoring to gin and in cooking. Oil also used in colic, rheumatism, neuralgia.