AnisumANISUM, ANISE, N.F.

Pimpinella Anisum, Linne', or Illicium verum, Hooker filius. The volatile oil distilled from the dried ripe fruits.

Habitat. W. Asia, Egypt, S. E. Europe; cultivated in S. Europe, United States, in gardens.

Syn. Anis., Aniseed, Aneys, Aunyle, Common Anise, Sweet Cumin, Semen Anisi; Br. Anisi Fructus; Fr. Anis, Anis vert, Graines d'Anise; Ger. Anis, Anissame; Ol. Anisi, Anise Oil; Fr. Essence d'Anis; Ger. Anisol, Anethol.

Pim-pi'nel'la. L. Medival name, altered, from bipinnate or bipinnella -- i.e., the pinnate leaves, lit. "The two-winged little plant."

An'iaum. L. Fr. Gr. -- Ar, anisum, anise, dill -- i.e., classic name.

Il-li'ci-um. L. Illicere, to allure, charm -- i.e., in allusion to its attractive perfume.

Ve'rum. L. Verus, true -- i.e., the genuine or real type.

Plants

Pimpinella Anisum: Annual herb .3 M. (1 degree) high; dentate, pinnatifid; flowers white, small umbels 8-14-rayed. Fruit -- Anisum, Anise (Seed), N.F. -- The dried ripe fruit with not more than 3 p.c. of other fruits, seeds or foreign organic matter, yielding not more than 1.5 p.c. of acid-insoluble ash; cremocarp, broadly oval compressed, mericarps usually cohering and attached to slender pedicel 2-12 Mm (l/12-1/2') long, apex with 2 styles, grayish-green, seldom brownish, slightly pubescent; odor and taste agreeable, aromatic -- Russian variety closely resembles conium. Powder, yellowish-brown -- numerous fragments of pericarp with yellowish oil tubes, tracheae, carpophore fibers, endosperm cells, aleurone grains, calcium oxalate rosette aggregates, non-glandular hairs. Test: 1. Heat 1 Gm. with potassium hydroxide T.S., (10) -- no mouse-like odor (abs. of conium). Illicium verum. - Magnoliaceae: Small tree, 3-6M. (10-20 degrees high, branched; leaves pellucid-punctate; flowers greenish-yellow; Fruit, star-shaped -- 8 stellately arranged boat-shaped carpels, 8 Mm. (1/3') long, brown woody, wrinkled, each carpel containing 1 glossy-brown seed; solvents: alcohol, boiling water. Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.)

Constituents

Volatile oil (anethol) 1-3 p.c., fixed oil 3-4 p.c., choline, resin, sugar, mucilage, malates, phosphates, ash 7 p.c.

Oleum Anisi. Oil of Anise. Oil of Star Anise, U.S.P. -- This volatile oil is a colorless, pale yellow, strongly refractive liquid, characteristic odor and taste of anise, soluble with not more than slight cloudiness in 3 vols. Of 90 p.c. alcohol; sp. gr. 0.983, increasing with age; contains a liquid body -- terpenes and methyl-chavicol, CHO, and a stearoptene, anethol, CHO, 80-90 p.c., upon which the value depends, being converted by exposure or oxidation with nitric acid into anisic acid; star anise oil is the same chemically, containing anethol 80-90 p.c., d-pinene, d-phellandrene, and possibly safrol, but congeals at 1 degree C. (34 degrees F.), while anise oil at 10-15 degrees C. (50-59 degrees F.). Tests: 1. Levorotatory (abs. oils of fennel, caraway, coriander -- dextrorotatory). 2. Shake with water in graduated tube -- volume should not diminish; drop into water--no milkiness unless agitated (abs. of alcohol). 3. Alcoholic solution neutral; with a drop of ferric chloride T.S. -- no blue or brown color (abs. Of phenols). Impurities: Heavy metals, oil of fennel, phenols. The label must indicate definitely its specific source, and if solid material has separated, carefully warm the oil until liquefied and thoroughly mix before dispensing. Should be kept dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles. Dose, mij-5 (.l3-.3 cc.).

Anethol. Anethol, N.F. -- The methyl ether of para-propenyl phenol CHCHOCH, obtained from this and other oils (star anise, fennel), by fractionating, chilling, crystallizing; practically identical with the oil. It is a colorless, faintly yellow, highly refractive liquid at 23 degrees C. (73 degrees F.), sweet taste and aromatic odor of anise, solidifies at 20 degrees C. (68 degrees F.) to white glistening, crystalline mass, remelting at 22 degrees C. (72 degrees F.), soluble in ether, chloroform, alcohol (2), almost insoluble in water; sp. gr. 0.985, boils at 235 degrees C. (455 degrees F.); optically inactive, levorotatory (if from anise), dextrorotatory (if from fennel). Test: 1. Shake 10 cc. with 50 cc. saturated aqueous solution of sodium bisulphite in graduated cylinder, let stand 6 hours--no diminution of anethol volume nor crystalline deposit

(abs. of aldehydes). Should be kept dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles. Dose, mij-5 (.13-.3 cc.).

Adulterations

Fruit

Earthy fragments, partly exhausted fruits, recognized by shriveled appearance, chiefly, however with conium fruit (which resembles mosly the Russian anise), but odor and taste not aromatic--becoming mouse-like with solution potassium hydroxide even when 1 p.c. present; non-hairy; consisting usually of single smooth mericarps, grooved upon the face, 5-crenate ribs (ridges) with wrinkles between them, no vittae;

Powder

Star-anise recognized by its peculiar sclerotic cells, earthy matter sinking when stirred in strong brine; OIL: Spermaceti 5-35 p.c., wax, petroleum, fixed oils, oils of turpentine and fennel, camphor (to raise congealing-point), alcohol, whereas oils and camphor are mostly soluble; camphors recognized -- by odor; alcohol -- by milkiness to water, star-anise oil is the same chemically, but has a slight distinguishing smell and taste, also lower congealing-point (1 degree C.; 34 degrees F.).

Commercial

Plant was known and cultivated by the Romans, while Theophrastus wrote of its aromatic properties; now grown mostly in Malta, Spain, Italy, S. Russia, Greece, Chile. There are four varieties: 1, Spanish (Alicante), small, best, preferred; 2, German (French), larger; 3, Italian, exported via Leghorn; 4, Russian, very short, resembling conium most; that cultivated at home supplies largely our market.

Preparations

Oil: 1. Aqua Anisi. Anise Water. (Synb., Aq. Anisi; Fr. Eau d'Anis; Ger. Aniswasser.)

Manufacture

1/5 p.c. A saturated solution; similar to Aquae Aromaticae -- triturate oil .2 cc. With purified talc 1.5 Gm., adding gradually recently boiled distilled water q.s. 100 cc. Dose, 3ij-8 (8-30 cc.).

2. Spiritus Anisi. Spirit of Anise. (Syn., Sp. Anisi, Essentia Anisi; Fr. Alcoolat (Esprit) d'Anis; Ger. Anisgeist.)

Manufacture: 10 p.c. Mix oil 10 cc. With alcohol q.s. 100 cc. Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).

3. Fluidextraqctum Cascarae Sagradae Aromaticum, 1/4 p.c. 4. Spiritus Aurantii Compositus, p.c. 5. Syrupus Sarsaparillae Compositus, 1/50 p.c. 6. Tinctura Opii Camphorata, 2/5 p.c. 7. Elixir Phosphori, N.D. 1/5 p.c.; 8. Syrupus Trifolii Compositus, N.F., 1/50 p.c. 9. Tinctura Opii et Gambir Composita, N.F., 1/10 p.c. FRUIT: 1. Species Laxativae, N.F., 12.5 p.c. 2. Speciees Pectorales, N.F., 10 p.c. 3. Tinctura Rhei Dulcis, N.F., 4 p.c. ANETHOL: 1. Elixir Anisi, N.F., .35 p.c. 2. Pulvis Rhei et Magnesiae Anisatus, N.F., 8 p.c. 3. Spiritus Ammoniae Anisatus, N.F., 3 p.c. 4. Spiritus Cardamomi Compositus, N.F., p.c.

Unoff. Preps.: FRUIT: Fluidextract, mx-30 (.6-2) cc.). Infusion, 5 p.c., 3j-8 (4-30 cc.).

Properties

Aromatic stimulant and carminative, stomachic, once supposed a galactagogue, now doubted, although it does impart peculiar taste to secreting milk.

Uses

Flatulent colic, bronchitis, infantile catarrh. As a corrigent to griping cathartics, but here fennel is preferred; much used for flavoring food, confectionery, and in veterinary practice.

Allied Plants

Pimpinella Saxif'raga and S. Mag'na; dried rhizome and roots; light yellowish-brown, aromatic, sweetish, pungent; composition, properties and uses similar to anise. Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.); tincture, 20 p.c. (67 p.c. alcohol).